The joint action for malformations induced by 18 binary mixtures of four carboxylic acids was determined, using Xenopus embryos. The acids were selected to evaluate whether joint actions for mixtures changed when the data were analyzed by specific malformations or malformation syndromes as opposed to joint actions determined when any type of malformation was included in the analysis. Each of six binary combinations of the acids were tested three or four times in 96-h staticrenewal tests, starting with late-blastula stage embryos. Toxic unit analysis indicated that all but five of 56 possible analyses showed concentration addition joint actions. Concentration addition was observed for all instances in which microcephaly was included as a malformation (with or without other malformations being included) and for all possible mixtures where only eye defects were evaluated. In five instances, evaluating only abnormal gut coiling, the joint action was response addition, including all three mixtures for the valproic acid and pentanoic acid combination. The other 29 analyses which included abnormal gut coiling showed concentration addition. The results indicate that, for chemicals that are structurally similar and induce the same types of defects in frog embryos, there is no significant change in the joint action when the data is analyzed by specific malformations or syndromes rather than by including all malformations together. Abnormal gut coiling, a malformation induced by most toxic chemicals, appears to be less reliable for joint action determination, especially if it is the primary manifestation of abnormal development.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
ASTM (1991) Standard Guide for Conducting the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX). ASTM E 1439–91. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA
Anderson PD, Weber LJ (1975) The toxicity to aquatic populations of mixtures containing certain heavy metals. In: Symposium proceedings: International conference on heavy metals in the environment Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, Vol. II, Part 2, pp 933–953
Bantle JA, Dumont JN, Finch R, Linder G (1991) Atlas of abnormalities: A guide for the performance of FETAX. Oklahoma State Publications Dept, Stillwater, OK
Calabrese EJ (1991) Multiple chemical interactions. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI
Dawson DA (1993a) Comparative joint actions of semicarbazide and thiosemicarbazide on induction of malformations and osteolathyrism in mixtures with benzoic hydrazide. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 13:23–33
— (1993b) Joint action of benzoic hydrazide and beta-aminopropionitrile on Xenopus embryo development. Toxicology 81(2):123–130
— (1991a) Additive incidence of developmental malformation for Xenopus embryos exposed to a mixture of ten aliphatic carboxylic acids. Teratology 44:531–546
— (1991b) Joint action of t-retinoic and valproic acids on Xenopus embryo development. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 11:317–325
Dawson DA, Bantle JA (1987) Development of a reconstituted water medium and preliminary validation of the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). J Appl Toxicol 7:237–244
Dawson DA, Schultz TW, Schroeder EC (1992) Laboratory care and breeding of the African clawed frog. Lab Animal 21:31–36
Dawson DA, Wilke TS (1991a) Initial evaluation of developmental malformation as an endpoint in mixture toxicity hazard assessment for aquatic vertebrates. Ecotox Environ Safety 21:215–226
—, — (1991b) Evaluation of FETAX (frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus) as a model system for mixture toxicity hazard assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:941–948
—, — (1991c) Joint toxic action of binary mixtures of osteolathyrogens at malformation-inducing concentrations for Xenopus embryos. J Appl Toxicol 11:415–421
Dumont JN, Schultz TW, Buchanan MV, Kao GL (1983) Frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX)—A short-term assay applicable to complex environmental mixtures. In: Waters MD, Sandhu SS, Lewtas J, Claxton L, Chernoff N, Nesnow S (eds) Symposium on the application of short-term bioassays in the analysis of complex environmental mixtures, III, Plenum Publishing, NY, pp 393–405
Nieuwkoop PD, Faber J (1975) Normal table of Xenopus laevis (Daudin). North-Holland, Amsterdam
Pöch G (1993) Combined effects of drugs and toxic agents: Modern evaluation in theory and practice. Springer-Verlag, NY
Robert E, Rosa F (1983) Valproate and birth defects. Lancet ii:1142
About this article
Cite this article
Dawson, D.A. Joint actions of carboxylic acid binary mixtures on Xenopus embryo development: Comparison of joint actions for malformation types. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 27, 243–249 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00214269
- Carboxylic Acid
- Binary Mixture
- Valproic Acid
- Joint Action
- Stage Embryo