Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Influence of exposure duration on the toxicity of triclopyr ester to fish and aquatic insects

Abstract

Flow-through toxicity tests were conducted to determine the effects of exposure time on the toxicity of triclopyr butoxyethyl ester (Garlon® 4) to fish (rainbow trout and chinook salmon) and stream insects (Hydropsyche sp. and Isonychia sp.). The toxicity of triclopyr ester to fish increased with exposure time, but the rate of increase in toxicity declined with increasing exposure duration. Median lethal concentrations for rainbow trout exposed for 1, 6, or 24 h were 22.5, 1.95, and 0.79 mg/L triclopyr ester (expressed as acid equivalent, nominal concentrations), respectively. Comparable values for chinook salmon were 34.6, 4.7, and 1.76 mg/L. The toxicity of triclopyr ester to aquatic insects also increased with increasing exposure time, but was considerably less than the toxicity to fish. There was no significant mortality (chi-square p>0.05) of insects following 3-h exposures to the maximum test concentration of approximately 110 mg/L. Median lethal concentrations following 9- and 24-h exposures were 14.9 and 4.0 ml/L for Hydropsyche sp., and 37.0 and 8.8 mg/L for Isonychia sp., respectively. At each exposure time in the toxicity tests, there was a sharp increase in mortality over relatively small increases in concentration, resulting in extremely steep slopes of the probit lines (6.3–33.8), and indicating an apparent response threshold. The herbicide exhibited delayed lethal effects, particularly in fish, but only at short term exposures to higher concentrations. The risk of adverse effects on fish and aquatic insects from triclopyr ester contamination, based on the results of these time-toxicity tests, is discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Barron MG, Mayes MA, Murphy PG, Nolan RJ (1990) Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of triclopyr butoxyethyl ester in coho salmon. Aquatic Toxicol 16:19–32

  2. Campbell RA (1991) Silvicultural herbicides in Canada: Registration status and research trends. For Chron 67:520–527

  3. Crossland NO, La Pointe TW (1992) Editorial: The design of mesocosm experiments. Environ Toxicol Chem 11:1–4

  4. Fairchild WL, Ernst WR, Mallet VN (1989) Fenitrothion effects on aquatic organisms. In: Ernst WR, Pearce PA, Pollock TL (eds), Environmental effects of fenitrothion use in forestry. Environment Canada, Atlantic Region, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, pp 109–166

  5. Heming TA, Sharma A, Kumar Y (1989) Time-toxicity relationships in fish exposed to the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor. Environ Toxicol Chem 8:923–932

  6. Johansen JA, Geen GH (1990) Sublethal and acute toxicity of the ethylene glycol butyl ether ester formulation of triclopyr to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 19:610–616

  7. Kreutzweiser DP, Wood GA (1991) Permethrin treatments in Canadian forests. Part 3: Environmental fate and distribution in streams. Pestic Sci 33:35–46

  8. Kreutzweiser DP, Holmes SB, Behmer DJ (1992) Effects of the herbicides hexazinone and triclopyr ester on aquatic insects. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 23:364–374

  9. Mayes MA, Troth JL, Gersich FM, Switzer A (1989) Impact of Garlon 4 herbicide on fish and invertebrates in a British Columbia forest ecosystem. R&D Report ES-2025, DowElanco, Midland, MI

  10. McCall PJ, Laskowski DA, Bidlack HD (1988) Simulation of the aquatic fate of triclopyr butoxyethyl ester and its predicted effects on coho salmon. Environ Contam Toxicol 7:517–527

  11. Moore DW, Schluchter MD, Scott GI (1990) Use of hazard models in evaluating the effect of exposure duration on the acute toxicity of three pesticides. In: Landis WG, van der Schalie WH (eds), Aquatic toxicology and risk assessment: thirteenth volume, ASTM STP 1096. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp 247–263

  12. Morgan JD, Vigers GA, Farrell AP, Janz DM, Manville JF (1991) Acute avoidance reactions and behavioral responses of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to Garlon 4, Garlon 3A, and Vision herbicides. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:73–79

  13. Muirhead-Thomson RC (1987) Pesticide impact on stream fauna with special reference to macroinvertebrates. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

  14. Parsons JT, Surgeoner GA (1991) Effect of exposure time on the acute toxicities of permethrin, fenitrothion, carbaryl and carbofuran to mosquito larvae. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:1219–1227

  15. Poirier DG, Surgeoner GA (1987) Laboratory flow-through bioassays of four forestry insecticides against stream invertebrates. Can Entomol 119:755–763

  16. Rodrigues CS, Kaushik NK (1984) A bioassay apparatus for the evaluation of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) larvicides. Can Entomol 116:75–78

  17. Russell RM, Robertson JL, Savin NE (1977) POLO: A new computer program for probit analysis. Bull Entomol Soc Am 23:209–213

  18. Servizi JA, Gordon RW, Martens DW (1987) Acute toxicity of Garlon 4 and Roundup herbicides to salmon, Daphnia, and trout. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39:15–22

  19. Sundaram KMS (1991) Fate and short-term persistence of the insecticide permethrin in a northern Ontario headwater stream. Pestic Sci 31:281–294

  20. Thompson DG, Staznik B, Fontaine DD, MacKay T, Oliver GR, Troth JL (1991) Fate of triclopyr ester (Release) in a boreal forest stream. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:619–632

  21. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (1984) Pesticides background statements, Vol. 1, Herbicides. Agriculture Handbook No. 633. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC

  22. Wan MT, Moul DJ, Watts RG (1987) Acute toxicity to juvenile Pacific salmonids of Garlon 3A, Garlon 4, triclopyr, triclopyr ester, and their transformation products: 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol and 2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39:721–728

  23. Wan MT, Watts RG, Moul DJ (1991) Acute toxicity to juvenile Pacific northwest salmonids of basacid blue NB755 and its mixture with formulated products of 2,4-D, glyphosate, and triclopyr. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 47:471–478

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to D. P. Kreutzweiser.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kreutzweiser, D.P., Holmes, S.B. & Eichenberg, D.C. Influence of exposure duration on the toxicity of triclopyr ester to fish and aquatic insects. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 26, 124–129 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00212804

Download citation

Keywords

  • Rainbow Trout
  • Toxicity Test
  • Exposure Duration
  • Aquatic Insect
  • Chinook Salmon