Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Survey and examination of an electromagnetic vacuum accelerating effect and its astrophysical consequences

  • 66 Accesses

  • 15 Citations

Abstract

A rigorous detailed review of the concepts and calculations behind the acceleration of particles by the electromagnetic zero-point field is presented. The acceleration is enhanced in regions of great size and low particle density. Astrophysical scenarios are suggested and discussed and cosmological possibilities are briefly outlined. It is shown that the acceleration follows both from a semiclassical approach in the manner of Stochastic Electrodynamics and from quantum theory with a zero-point field that most naturally (but not necessarily) may be interpreted as time-symmetric in the manner of the Wheeler-Feynman form of Quantum Electrodynamics. It is shown that both approaches yield essentially identical results.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

ABT:

Absorber theory

ALE:

Abraham-Lorentz equation

AM:

Acceleration mechanism

BME:

Braffort-Marshall equation

CE:

Cosmic expansion

CED:

Classical electrodynamics

CR:

Cosmic rays

EAS:

Extensive air showers

EHD:

Einstein-Hopf drag

EHM:

Einstein-Hopf model

EM:

Electromagnetic electromagnetism

FT:

Field theory

GZ:

Greisen-Zatsepin

GZE:

Greisen-Zatsepin effect

HO:

Harmonic oscillator

IC:

Inverse-Compton

ICRC:

International cosmic-ray conference

IGM:

Intergalactic medium

IGS:

Intergalactic space

ISS:

Interstellar space

LDE:

Lorentz-Dirac equation

LHS:

Left-hand side

LI:

Lorentz-invariant

MB:

Maxwell-Boltzmann

QED:

Quantum electrodynamics

QM:

Quantum mechanics

RHS:

Right-hand side

RJ:

Rayleigh-Jeans

SE:

Schrödinger equation

SED:

Stochastic electrodynamics

SM:

Stochastic mechanics

SNR:

Supernova remnant

SS:

Solar system

UHE:

Ultrahigh energies

ZBW:

Zitterbewegung

ZPE:

Zero-point energy

ZPF:

Zero-point field

XRB:

X-ray background

References

  1. Arons, J., McKee, C., and Max, C.: 1979, Particle Acceleration Mechanisms in Astrophysics, AIP Conference Proceedings No. 56, AIP, New York.

  2. Arzeliès, H.: 1966, Nuovo Cimento 41B, 81.

  3. Aspect, A., Dalibard, J., and Roger, G.: 1982, Phys. Rev. Letters 49, 1804.

  4. Baltrusaitis, R. M., Cassidy, G. L., Cooper, R., Dawson, B. R., Elbert, J. W., Fick, B. E., Green, K. D., Ko, S., Liebing, D. F., Lingle, C. P., Loh, E. C., Smith, J. D., Sokolsky, P., and Steck, D.: 1987, Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 1, 409.

  5. Baranov, P., Buinov, G., Godin, V., Kuznetsova, V., Petrunkin, V., Tatarinskaya, L., Shirtenko, V., Yurtchenko, V., and Yanulis, Yu.: 1974, Phys. Letters 52B, 122.

  6. Barshay, S. and Troost, W.: 1978, Phys. Letters 73B, 437.

  7. Barut, A. O.: 1961, Electrodynamics and Classical Theory of Fields and Particles, Dover, New York.

  8. Berezinsky, V. S.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 9, 39.

  9. Berezinsky, V. S. and Grigoreva, S. I.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 2, 68.

  10. Bergia, S., Lugli, P., and Zamboni, N.: 1979, Ann. Fond. Louis de Broglie (Paris) 4, 295.

  11. Bergia, S., Lugli, P., and Zamboni, N.: 1980, Ann. Fond. Louis de Broglie (Paris) 5, 39.

  12. Bernabeu, J. and Tarrach, B.: 1975, Phys. Letters 55B, 183.

  13. Bernabeu, J. and Tarrach, B.: 1977, Phys. Letters 69B, 484.

  14. Birrell, N. D. and Davies, P. C. W.: 1982, Quantum Fields in Curved Space, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

  15. Bjorken, J. D. and Drell, S. D.: 1965, Relativistic Quantum Fields, McGraw Hill, New York, pp. 36 and 93.

  16. Black, J. H. and Dalgarno, A.: 1977, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 34, 405.

  17. Blanco, R. and Pesquera, L.: 1986, Phys. Rev. D33, 421.

  18. Blanco, R., Pesquera, L., and Santos, E.: 1983, Phys. Rev. D27, 1254.

  19. Blanco, R., Pesquera, L., and Santos, E.: 1984, Phys. Rev. D29, 2240.

  20. Blandford, R. and Eichler, D.: 1987, Phys. Rep. 154, 1.

  21. Bloemen, J. B. G. M.: 1987a, Astrophys. J. 317, L15.

  22. Bloemen, H.: 1987b, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 1, 121.

  23. Bloemen, J. B. G. M., Bennett, K., Bignami, G. F., Blitz, L., Caraveo, P. A., Gottwald, M., Hermsen, W., Lebrun, F., Mayer-Hasselwander, A. W. and Strong, A. W.: 1984, Astron. Astrophys. 135, 12.

  24. Boldt, E.: 1987, Phys. Rep. 146, 216.

  25. Bondi, M. and Gold, T.: 1955, Proc. Roy. Soc. A229, 416.

  26. Boyer, T. H.: 1969a, Phys. Rev. 182, 1374.

  27. Boyer, T. H.: 1969b, Phys. Rev. 186, 1304.

  28. Boyer, T. H.: 1975, Phys. Rev. D11, 790, 809.

  29. Boyer, T. H.: 1978, Phys. Rev. A18, 1238.

  30. Boyer, T. H.: 1979, Phys. Rev. A20, 1246.

  31. Boyer, T. H.: 1980a, in A. O. Barut (ed.), Foundations of Radiation Theory and Quantum Electrodynamics, Plenum Press, New York, p. 49.

  32. Boyer, T. H.: 1980b, Phys. Rev. D21, 2137.

  33. Boyer, T. H.: 1983, Phys. Rev. 27, 2906.

  34. Boyer, T. H.: 1984, Phys. Rev. D29, 1089, 1096.

  35. Boyer, T. H.: 1985, Sci. Amer. 253(2), 70.

  36. Braffort, P., Spighel, M., and Tzara, C.: 1954, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 239, 157.

  37. Braffort, P., Surdin, M., and Taroni, A.: 1965, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 261, 4339.

  38. Brooke, G., Cunningham, G., Eames, P. J. V., Lawrence, M. A., Perrett, J. C., Reid, R. J. O., and Watson, A. A.: 1985, Proc. 19th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Dan Diego 2, 150.

  39. Bunge, M.: 1973, Philosophy of Physics, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, Holland, p. 202.

  40. Burbidge, G. R.: 1966, in L. Gratton (ed.), Rendiconti (Proceedings) Scuola Internazionale Enrico Fermi (S.I.F.), Course XXXV.

  41. Caldirola, P., Casati, G., and Prosperetti, A.: 1978, Nuovo Cimento 43A, 127.

  42. Callen, H. and Horwitz, G.: 1971, Am. J. Phys. 39, 938.

  43. Callen, H. and Welton, T. A.: 1951, Phys. Rev. 83, 34.

  44. Candelas, P. and Dowker, J. S.: 1979, Phys. Rev. D19, 2902.

  45. Candelas, P. and Sciama, D. W.: 1983, Phys. Rev. D27, 1715.

  46. Cassé, M.: 1979, in J. Arons, C. Max, and C. McKee (eds.), Particle Acceleration Mechanisms in Astrophysics, AIP Conference Proceedings No. 56, American Institute of Physics, New York, p. 211.

  47. Cavalleri, G.: 1981, Phys. Rev. D23, 363.

  48. Cavalleri, G.: 1985, Nuovo Cimento Letters 43, 285.

  49. Cavalleri, G.: 1987, On the Origin and Evolution of the Universe, Techniche Nuove, Milano, Italia.

  50. Cavalleri, G. and Salgarelli, G.: 1969, Nuovo Cimento 62A, 722.

  51. Cavalleri, G. and Spavieri, G.: 1986, Nuovo Cimento 95B, 194.

  52. Cavalleri, G. and Spavieri, G.: 1989, Nuovo Cimento 101A, 213.

  53. Cesarsky, C.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 8, 87.

  54. Chandrasekhar, S.: 1954, in N. Wax (ed.), Selected Papers on Noise and Stochastic Processes, Dover, New York.

  55. Cheung, T. and MacKeown, P. K.: 1987, J. Phys. G13, 687.

  56. Claverie, P.: 1981, in S. M. Moore, M. Rodriguez-Vargas, A. Rueda, and G. Violini (eds.), Proceedings of the Einstein Centennial Symposium on Fundamental Physics, Universidad de los Andes, Bogatá, Colombia.

  57. Claverie, P. and Diner, S.: 1980, Israel J. Chem. 19, 54.

  58. Claverie, P., Pesquera, L., and Soto, F.: 1980, Phys. Letters 80A, 113.

  59. Clauser, J. F. and Shimony, A.: 1978, Rep. Prog. Phys. 41, 1881.

  60. Clay, R. W.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 2, 32.

  61. Cole, D. C.: 1985, Phys. Rev. D31, 1972.

  62. Cowsick, R.: 1979, Astrophys. J. 227, 856.

  63. Cowsick, R.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 241, 1195.

  64. Cowsick, R.: 1985, Astron. Astrophys. 155, 344.

  65. Cowsick, R. and Kobetich, E. J.: 1971, Proc. 12th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 1, 38.

  66. Cowsick, R. and Kobetich, E. J.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 177, 585.

  67. Cramer, J. G.: 1986, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 647.

  68. Csonka, P. L.: 1969, Phys. Rev. 180, 1266.

  69. Davies, P. C. W.: 1972, J. Phys. A5, 1025.

  70. Davies, P. C. W.: 1974, The Physics of Time Asymmetry, Univ. California Press, Berkeley, CA, Chapter 5.

  71. Davies, P. C. W.: 1975, J. Phys. A (Math. Gen.) 8, 609.

  72. De la Peña, L.: 1983, in B. Gómez, S. M. Moore, A. M. Rodríguez-Vargas, and A. Rueda (eds.), Stochastic Processes Applied to Physics and Other Related Fields, World Scientific, Singapore.

  73. De la Peña, L. and Cetto, A. M.: 1979, J. Math. Phys. (NY) 20, 469.

  74. De la Peña, L. and Cetto, A. M.: 1986, Nuovo Cimento 92B, 189.

  75. Díaz-Salamanca, C. and Rueda, A.: 1984, Phys. Rev. D29, 648.

  76. Dirac, P. A. M.: 1938, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A167, 148.

  77. Eichler, D.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 237, 809.

  78. Eichler, D.: 1986, in M. Livio and G. Shaviv (eds.), ‘The Origin of Cosmic Rays’, Proceedings Twelfth Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics, Ann. NY Academy of Sciences, Vol. 470, p. 205.

  79. Einstein, A.: 1907, Jb. Radioakt. 4, 411.

  80. Einstein, A.: 1917, Phys. Z. 18, 121.

  81. Einstein, A.: 1926, in R. Furth (ed.), Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement, Methuen and Co. Ltd., London (republished in 1956, Dover, New York).

  82. Einstein, A. and Hopf, L.: 1910, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 33, 1105, 1096.

  83. Einstein, A. and Stern, O.: 1913, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 40, 551.

  84. Enz, C. P.: 1974, in C. P. Enz and J. Mehra (eds.), Physical Reality and Mathematical Description, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, Holland.

  85. Fabian, A. C.: 1981, in R. Ramaty and F. C. Jones (eds.), ‘The X- and γ-Ray Backgrounds’, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 375, 235.

  86. Fenyes, I.: 1952, Z. Phys. 132, 81.

  87. Feynman, R. P. and Hibbs, A. R.: 1965, Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals, McGraw-Hill, New York.

  88. Feynman, R. P. and Leighton, R.: 1986, Surely You are Joking Mr. Feynman, W. W. Norton, New York, pp. 77–80.

  89. Field, G. B.: 1980, in H. Woolf (ed.), Some Strangeness in the Proportion, Albert Einstein Centenary Celebration at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ-1979, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., U.S.A., p. 308.

  90. Field, G. B. and Perrenod, S. C.: 1977, Astrophys. J. 215, 717.

  91. Flamm, D. and Schoeberl, F.: 1982, Introduction to the Quark Model of Elementary Particles, Vol. 1, Gordon and Breach, New York.

  92. Forward, R. L.: 1984, Phys. Rev. B30, 1700.

  93. Frauenfelder, H. and Henley, E. M.: 1974, Subatomic Physics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., U.S.A.

  94. Fransson, C. and Epstein, R. I.: 1979, preprint, Nordita, Copenhagen.

  95. French, A. P.: 1968, Special Relativity, W. W. Norton, New York, p. 237.

  96. Fulton, T. and Rohrlich, F.: 1960, Ann. Phys. N.Y. 9, 499.

  97. Furlan, G., Paver, N. and Verzegnazzi, C.: 1976, Nuovo Cimento 32A, 75.

  98. García-Muñoz, M., Mason, G. M., and Simpson, J. A.: 1977, Astrophys. J. 217, 859.

  99. Gasser, J. and Leutwyler, H.: 1982, Phys. Rep. 87, 78.

  100. Giacconi, R. and Tannanbaum, H.: 1980, Science 209, 865.

  101. Giacconi, R., Bechtold, J., Branduardi, G., Forman, W., Henry, J. P., Jones, C., Kellogg, E., Van der Laan, H., Liller, W., Marshall, H., Murray, S. S., Pye, J., Schreier, E., Sargent, W. L. W., Seward, F., and Tannanbaum, H.: 1979, Astrophys. J. 234, L1.

  102. Giacconi, R., Gursky, H., Paolini, F., and Rossi, B.: 1962, Phys. Rev. Letters 9, 439.

  103. Giler, M., Osborne, J. L., Szabelska, B., Wdowzyk, J., and Wolfendale, A. W.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 2, 214.

  104. Giler, M., Szabelska, M., Wdowczyk, J., and Wolfendale, A. W.: 1985, Proc. 19th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., La Jolla, 234.

  105. Ginzburg, V. L.: 1974, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A277, 463.

  106. Ginzburg, V. L.: 1978a, Soviet Phys. Usp. 21(2), 155.

  107. Ginzburg, V. L.: 1978b, Key Problems of Physics and Astrophysics MIR Publishers, Moscow.

  108. Ginzburg, V. L.: 1979, Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Pergamon Press, Oxford.

  109. Ginzburg, V. L.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 7, 7.

  110. Ginzburg, V. L. and Ptuskin, V. S.: 1976, Rev. Mod. Phys. 48, 161.

  111. Ginzburg, V. L. and Syrovatskii, S. I.: 1964, The Origin of Cosmic Rays, Pergamon Press, Oxford.

  112. Glushkov, A. V., Egorov, T. A., Efimov, N. N., and Praudin, M. I.: 1985, in F. C. Jones et al. (eds.), Proc. 19th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., San Diego 2, 198.

  113. Gold, T.: 1967, The Nature of Time, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY.

  114. Gottfried, K. and Weisskopf, V.: 1984, Concepts of Particle Physics, Vol. 1, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

  115. Gradshteyn, I. S. and Ryshik, I. M.: 1965, Tables of Integrals, Series and Products, Academic Press, New York, 4th edition.

  116. Gregory, S. A., Thompson, L. A., and Tifft, W. G.: 1981, Astrophys. J. 243, 411.

  117. Greisen, K.: 1965, Proc. 9th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., London 2, 609.

  118. Greisen, K.: 1966, Phys. Rev. Letters 16, 748.

  119. Grotch, H., Kazes, E., Rohrlich, F., and Sharp, D. H.: 1982, Acta Phys. Austriaca 54, 31.

  120. Guerra, F.: 1981, Phys. Rep. 77, 263.

  121. Gunn, J. E. and Peterson, B. A.: 1965, Astrophys. J. 142, 1633.

  122. Guth, A. H.: 1981, Phys. Rev. D23, 347.

  123. Haken, H.: 1975, Rev. Mod. Phys. 47, 67.

  124. Hamilton, T. and Helfand, D.: 1986, Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory Preprint No. 314.

  125. Hawking, S.: 1974, Nature 248, 30.

  126. Hayakawa, S.: 1969, Cosmic Ray Physics, Wiley and Sons, New York.

  127. Henley, M. E. and Thirring, W.: 1962, Elementary Quantum Field Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York.

  128. Hill, C. T. and Schramm, D. N.: 1985, Phys. Rev. D31, 564.

  129. Hillas, A. M.: 1984, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 22, 425.

  130. Hillas, A. M.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 2, 275.

  131. Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J. V.: 1971, Ann. Phys. N.Y. 62, 44.

  132. Imaeda, K. and Imaeda, M.: 1982, J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 15, 1243.

  133. Jackson, J. D.: 1975, Classical Electrodynamics, Wiley and Sons, New York.

  134. Jammer, M.: 1966, The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics, McGraw-Hill, New York.

  135. Jammer, M.: 1974, The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics — Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics in Historical Perspective, Wiley and Sons, New York.

  136. Jiménez, J. L., De la Peña, L., and Brody, T.: 1980, Am. J. Phys. 48, 840.

  137. Jokipii, J. R.: 1979, in J. Arons, C. Max, and C. McKee (eds.), Particles Acceleration Mechanisms in Astrophysics, AIP Conference Proceedings No. 56, AIP, New York.

  138. Khristiansen, G. B.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 8, pp 54.

  139. Kolokolov, A. A. and Skrotsky, G. V.: 1972, Nuovo Cimento Letters 4, 637.

  140. Konopinski, E. J.: 1981, Electromagnetic Fields and Relativistic Particles, McGraw-Hill, New York.

  141. Kuhn, T. S.: 1978, Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity 1874–1912, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

  142. Kurokawa, K.: 1958, IRE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 6, 178.

  143. Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M.: 1958, Statistical Physics, Pergamon Press, London.

  144. Landsberg, P. T.: 1966a, Nature 212, 571.

  145. Lanbdsberg, P. T.: 1966b, Proc. Phys. Soc. 89, 1007.

  146. Lang, K.: 1980, Astrophysical Formulae, second edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

  147. Lecompte, A. and Rueda, A.: 1985, Revista Colombiana de Fisica 17, 71 (previously known as a Uniandes Preprint (1982) entitled ‘No Friction on Polarizable Particles Moving through the Classical Electromagnetic Zero-Point Field’).

  148. Lee, T. D.: 1980, in G. Feinberg, A. W. Sunyar, and J. Wenesser (eds.), ‘Is the Physical Vacuum a Medium?’, A Festschrift for Maurice Goldhaber, Trans. NY Acad. Sci. Series II, Vol. 40.

  149. Lerche, I. and Schlickeiser, R.: 1985a, Astron. Astrophys. 151, 408.

  150. Lerche, I. and Schlickeiser, R.: 1985b, in F. J. Jones et al. (eds.), Proc. 19th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., La Jolla 3, 226.

  151. Leutwyler, H.: 1982, ‘On the Status of QCD’, University of Bern, preprint.

  152. Liboff, R. L.: 1969, The Theory of Kinetic Equations, Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 155ff.

  153. Linde, A.: 1984, Rep. Prog. Phys. 47, 925.

  154. Linsley, J.: 1973, Proc. 13th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 5, 3207.

  155. Longair, M. S.: 1981, High Energy Astrophysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  156. Louisell, W. H.: 1973, Quantum Statistical Properties of Radition, Wiley and Sons, New York.

  157. Maddox, J.: 1987, Nature 325, 385.

  158. Marshall, F. E., Boldt, E. A., Holt, S. S., Miller, R. B., Mushotzky, R. F., Rose, L. A., Rothschild, R. E., and Serlemitsos, P. J.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 235, 4.

  159. Marshall, T. W.: 1963, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A276, 475.

  160. Marshall, T. W.: 1965, Proc. Cambr. Phil. Soc. 61, 537.

  161. Marshall, T. W.: 1981, Phys. Rev. D24, 1509.

  162. Marshall, T. W. and Claverie, P.: 1980a, Physica 104A, 223.

  163. Marshall, T. W. and Claverie, P.: 1980b, J. Math. Phys. 21, 1819.

  164. Marshall, T. W., Santos, E., and Selleri, F.: 1983, Phys. Letters 98A, 5.

  165. McKee, C. F.: 1980, Phys. Scripta 21, 738.

  166. Meyer, J. P.: 1981, Proc. 17th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Paris 2, 281.

  167. Milonni, P. W.: 1976, Phys. Rep. 25, 1.

  168. Misner, C. W., Thorne, K. S., and Wheeler, J. A.: 1973, Gravitation, W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.

  169. Moniz, E. J. and Sharp, D. H.: 1974, Phys. Rev. D10, 1133.

  170. Moniz, E. J. and Sharp, D. H.: 1977, Phys. Rev. D15, 2850.

  171. Moore, S. M.: 1981, Nuovo Cimento Letters 32, 91.

  172. Mosengueil, von, K.: 1907, Ann. Phys. 22, 867.

  173. Mould, R. A.: 1964, Ann. Phys. 27, 1.

  174. Namsrai, K.: 1985, Found. Phys. 15, 129.

  175. Namsrai, K.: 1986, Nonlocal Quantum Field Theory and Stochastic Quantum Mechanics, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, Holland.

  176. Nelson, E.: 1966, Phys. Rev. 150, 1079.

  177. Nelson, E.: 1967, Dynamical Theories of Brownian Motion, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

  178. Nelson, E.: 1985, Quantum Fluctuations, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

  179. Nelson, E.: 1987, in A. Rueda (ed.), Proceedings of the First Workshop on Fundamental Physics at the University of Puerto Rico, Humacao, PR, March, 1985.

  180. Nernst, W.: 1916, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 18, 83.

  181. Newburgh, R. G.: 1979, Nuovo Cimento 52B, 219.

  182. Nishimura, J.: 1981, in G. Setti, G. Spada, and A. W. Wolfendale (eds.), ‘Features of the High Energy Electron Spectrum’, Origin of Cosmic Rays, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, Holland.

  183. Orth, C. D. Buffington, A., Smooth, G. F., and Mast, T. S.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 226, 1147.

  184. Ostriker, J.: 1979, in J. Arons, C. McKee, and C. Max (eds.), Particle Acceleration Mechanisms in Astrophysics, AIP, New York, p. 357.

  185. Ott, H.: 1963, Z. Phys. 175, 70.

  186. Parisi, G. and Wu, Y.-S.: 1981, Sci. Sinica 24, 483.

  187. Parker, E. N.: 1961, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 2673, and references therein.

  188. Pauli, W.: 1920, Encycl. Math. Wiss. 19(5), 648, 653.

  189. Payen, R.: 1984, J. Phys. 45, 805.

  190. Peebles, P. J. E.: 1971, Physical Cosmology, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

  191. Pegg, D. T.: 1972, Australian J. Phys. 25, 207.

  192. Pegg, D. T.: 1975, Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 1339.

  193. Pegg, D. T.: 1986, Phys. Scripta T12, 14.

  194. Pilkuhn, H. M.: 1979, Relativistic Particle Physics, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, p. 138.

  195. Planck, M.: 1900a, Deutschen Phys. Ges. 2, 202.

  196. Planck, M.: 1900b, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 1, 719.

  197. Planck, M.: 1908, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 26, 1.

  198. Planck, M.: 1914, The Theory of Heat Radiation, P. Blakinston Son & Co (translated by M. Masius, republication 1959, Dover, New York).

  199. Povinec, P.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 7, 115.

  200. Popper, K. R.: 1956, The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Hutchinson, London.

  201. Prugovecki, E.: 1984, Stochastic Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Spactime, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, Holland.

  202. Prugovecki, E.: 1987, Nuovo Cimento 97A, 597.

  203. Ptuskin, V. S.: 1985, in F. C. Jones et al. (eds.), Proc. 19th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., San Diego 9, 215.

  204. Puthoff, H. E.: 1987, Phys. Rev. D35, 3266.

  205. Puthoff, H. E.: 1989a, Phys. Rev. A39, 2333.

  206. Puthoff, H. E.: 1989b, Phys. Rev. D40, 4857.

  207. Ramos, E.: 1988, University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, unpublished.

  208. Recami, E.: 1971, Nuovo Cimento Letters 2, 297.

  209. Rohrlich, F.: 1965, Classical Charged Particles, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.

  210. Rosen, E. (ed.): 1969, Selected Papers on Cosmic Ray Origin Theory, Dover, New York.

  211. Roy, S.: 1979, Nuovo Cimento B51, 29.

  212. Rueda, A.: 1973a, J. Chem. Phys. 58, 3320.

  213. Rueda, A.: 1973b, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 573.

  214. Rueda, A.: 1973c, Space Life Sci. 4, 469 (presently called Origins of Life).

  215. Rueda, A.: 1973d, Phys. Rev. A8, 2099.

  216. Rueda, A.: 1973e, ‘On the Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Thermal Radiation Fields’, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, Ph.D. thesis, unpublished.

  217. Rueda, A.: 1974a, Found. Phys. 4, 215.

  218. Rueda, A.: 1974b, Rev. Comobiana de Física 10, 3.

  219. Rueda, A.: 1975, Rev. Colombiana de Fisica 11, 93 (see also America Latina 2001, March 1977, 1, 23, in Spanish).

  220. Rueda, A.: 1978, Nuovo Cimento A48, 155.

  221. Rueda, A.: 1981a, Phys. Rev. A23, 2020.

  222. Rueda, A.: 1981b, in Ch. Ryter et al. (eds.), Proc. 17th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Paris 2, 361.

  223. Rueda, A.: 1983a, Nuovo Cimento C6, 523.

  224. Rueda, A.: 1983b, Proc. 18th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Bangalore 1, 31.

  225. Rueda, A.: 1983c, in B. Gómez, S. M. Moore, A. M. Rodriguez-Vargas, and A. Rueda (eds.), Stochastic Processes Applied to Physics and Other Related Fields, World Scientific, Singapore.

  226. Rueda, A.: 1984, Phys. Rev. A30, 2221.

  227. Rueda, A.: 1985a, in F. C. Jones et al. (eds.), Proc. 19th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., San Diego 3, 191.

  228. Rueda, A.: 1985b, in A. Rueda (ed.), ‘Are Particles Accelerated by the ZPF and QED?’, Proceedings First Workshop on Fundamental Physics at the University of Puerto Rico, UPR, Humacao University College, Puerto Rico.

  229. Rueda, A.: 1986a, Nuovo Cimento 96B, 64.

  230. Rueda, A.: 1986b, in E. Esteban (ed.), ‘Attempting an Alternative Approach to Stochastic Electrodynamics — Towards a Lorentz-Dirac Theory of the Electron in the Classical Electromagnetic ZPF’, Proceedings Second Workshop on Fundamental Physics at the University of Puero Rico — Cosmology and High Energy, UPR, Humacao University College, Puerto Rico.

  231. Rueda, A.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 2, 280.

  232. Rueda, A. and Cavalleri, G.: 1983, Nuovo Cimento 6C, 239.

  233. Rueda, A. and Lecompte, A.: 1979, Nuovo Cimento 52A, 264.

  234. Rueda, A. and Lecompte, A.: 1987, ‘Thermodynamical Analysis of Fluid Model for the One-Particle Schroedinger Equation in the Context of Stochasdtic Electrodynamics’, Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales XVI(62), 9.

  235. Rueda, A. and Tauber, J. A.: 1981, Uniandes Preprints 39-8-81 and 36-6-81, unpublished.

  236. Sakharov, A. D.: 1968, Soviet Phys. Dokl. 12, 1040.

  237. Sakurai, J. J.: 1967, Advanced Quantum Mechanics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.

  238. Santos, E.: 1972, Nuovo Cimento Letters 4, 497.

  239. Santos, E.: 1974a, Nuovo Cimento 19B, 57.

  240. Santos, E.: 1974b, Nuovo Cimento 22B, 201.

  241. Sargent III, M., Scully, M. O., and Lamb, W. E.: 1974, Laser Physics, Wiley and Sons, Reading, Mass.

  242. Schlickeiser, R.: 1989, Astrophys. J. 336, 243, 264.

  243. Sciama, D. W.: 1963, Proc. Roy. Soc. A273, 484.

  244. Sciama, D. W., Candelas, P., and Deutsch, D.: 1981, Adv. Phys. 30, 327.

  245. Setti, G., Spada, G., and Wolfendale, A. W. (eds.): 1981, ‘Origin of Cosmic Rays’, IAU Symp. 94.

  246. Sharp, D. H.: 1980, in A. O. Barut (ed.), ‘Radiation Reaction in Nonrelativistic Quantum Theory’, Foundations of Radiation Theory and Quantum Electrodynamics, Plenum Press, New York, p. 127.

  247. Sherman, R. D.: 1981, Astrophys. J. 246, 365.

  248. Sinha, M. and Roy, S.: 1985, Nuovo Cimento C8, 531.

  249. Sinha, M. and Roy, S.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 2, 276.

  250. Strong, A. W., Bloemen, J. B. G. M., Dame, T. M., Grenier, I. A., Hermsen, W., Lebrun, F., Nyman, L. A., Pollock, A. M. T., and Thaddeus, P.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 1, 125.

  251. Surdin, M.: 1971, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré 15, 203.

  252. Szabelski, J., Wdowczyk, J., and Wolfendale, A. W.: 1986, J. Phys. (Nucl. Phys.) G12, 1433.

  253. Takano, Y.: 1961, Prog. Theor. Phys. 26, 304; 27, 212.

  254. Takano, Y.: 1967, Prog. Theor. Phys. 38, 1185.

  255. Tannanbaum, H., Avni, Y., Branduardi, G., Elvis, M., Fabbiano, G., Feigelson, E., Giacconi, R., Henry, J. P., Pye, J. P., Soltan, A., and Zamorani, G.: 1979, Astrophys. J. 234, L9.

  256. Tauber, J.: 1981, Thesis, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.

  257. Teshima, M., Hara, T., Hayashida, N., Honda, M., Ishikawa, F., Kamata, K., Kifune, T., Matsubara, Y., Mori, M., Nagano, M., Nishijima, K., Ohoka, H., Ohno, Y., Rao, M. V. S., and Tanahashi, G.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 1, 404.

  258. Theimer, O.: 1971, Phys. Rev. D4, 1597.

  259. Theimer, O. and Peterson, P. R.: 1975, Nuovo Cimento Letters 13, 279.

  260. Turner, M. S.: 1987, in P. Ramond and R. Stora (eds.), Architecture of Fundamental Interactions at Short Distances, Les Houches 1985, Session XLIV, Part II, Elsevier Science Publ., Amsterdam.

  261. Unruh, W. G.: 1976, Phys. Rev. D14, 870.

  262. Van Kampen, N. G.: 1969, J. Phys. Soc. Japan Suppl. 26, 316.

  263. Van Vleck, J. H.: 1926, Quantum Principles and Line Spectra, Bull. National Research Council, Vol. 10, Chapter III, p. 23.

  264. Völk, H. J.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 7, 157.

  265. Watson, A. A.: 1985, in F. C. Jones et al. (eds.), Proc. 19th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., San Diego 2.

  266. Webber, W. R.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 8, 65.

  267. Weyl, H.: 1913, J. Math. 143, 177.

  268. Weyl, H.: 1915, Rend. Cir. Mat. Palermo 39, 1.

  269. Wheeler, J. A.: 1964, in C. de Witt and B. S. de Witt (eds.), Relativity, Groups and Topology, Gordon and Breach, New York.

  270. Wheeler, J. A. and Feynman, R. P.: 1945, Rev. Mod. Phys. 17, 157.

  271. Wheeler, J. A. and Feynman, R. P.: 1949, Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 425.

  272. Whittaker, E.: 1953, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, Nelson and Sons, Edinburgh.

  273. Wien, W.: 1893, Sitzber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 55.

  274. Winn, M. M., Ubrichs, J., Peak, L. S., McCusker, C. B. A., and Horton, L.: 1986, J. Phys. (Nucl. Phys.) G12, 675, 653.

  275. Wolfendale, A. W.: 1984, Rep. Prog. Phys. 47, 655.

  276. Young, E. C. M. and Yu, K. N.: 1987, in V. A. Kozyarivsky et al. (eds.), Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Moscow 1, 181, 184, 188, 199.

  277. Zatsepin, G. T. and Kuz'min, V. A.: 1966, Pis'ma Zh. Eksper. Teor. Fiz. 4, 114.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rueda, A. Survey and examination of an electromagnetic vacuum accelerating effect and its astrophysical consequences. Space Sci Rev 53, 223–345 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00212755

Download citation

Keywords

  • Quantum Theory
  • Particle Density
  • Identical Result
  • Detailed Review
  • Quantum Electrodynamic