Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Gentoxocity of blue rayon extracts from river waters using sister chromatid exchange in cultured mammalian cells

  • 23 Accesses

  • 16 Citations


Using cultured Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays were carried out with blue rayon extracts recovered at seven sampling locations from the Katsura, Nishitakase and Kamo Rivers, tributaries of the Yodo River, in Kyoto City, Japan. The downstream extracts of wastewater treatment plants showed higher SCE frequencies than the upstream extracts both with and without metabolic activation, suggesting that the effluents from wastewater treatment plants were the possible pollution sources of genotoxic chemicals in the rivers. The results show the possible use of SCE in CHL cells for the monitoring of genotoxicity of blue rayon extracts from river waters. In addition, simultaneous treatment with sodium thiosulfate significantly reduced the frequencies of SCE induced by blue rayon extracts.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Ames BN, McCann J, Yamasaki E (1975) Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Res 31:347–364

  2. Athanasiou K, Kyrtopoulos SA (1983) Mutagenic and clastogenic effects of organic extracts from the Athenian drinking water. Sci Total Environ 27:113–120

  3. Douglas GR, Nestmann ER, Lebel G (1986) Contribution of chlorination to the mutagenic activity of drinking water extracts in Salmonella and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Environ Hlth Perspect 69:81–87

  4. Hayatsu H (1992) Cellulose bearing covalently linked copper phthalocyanine trisulphonate as an adsorbent selective for polycyclic compounds and its use in studies of environmental mutagens and carcinogens. J Chromatogr 597:37–56

  5. Houk VS (1992) The genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents. Mutation Res 277:91–138

  6. Maruoka S, Yamanaka S, Yamamoto Y (1986) Isolation of mutagenic components by high-performance liquid chromatography from XAD extract of water from the Nishitakase River, Kyoto City, Japan Sci Total Environ 57:29–38

  7. —, —, — (1985) Mutagenic activity in organic concentrate from Nishitakase River water in Kyoto City, and its fractions separated by using liquid-liquid fractionation and thin layer chromatography. Water Res 19:249–256

  8. Maruoka S, Yamanaka S (1983) Comparative studies using the Ames Salmonella/microsome test on mutagenicity of the XAD extract recovered from the river waters in Kyoto City. Environ Sci Technol 17:177–180

  9. —, — (1982) Mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains of XAD-2-ether extract recovered from Katsura River water in Kyoto City and its fractions. Mutation Res 102:13–26

  10. Meier JR (1988) Genotoxic activity of organic chemicals in drinking water. Mutation Res 196:211–245

  11. Nachtman JP, Wolff S (1982) Activity of nitro-polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the sister chromatid exchange assay with and without metabolic activation. Environ Mutagen 4:1–5

  12. Onodera S (1991) Characterization and determination of organic compounds in the mutagenic XAD-2 extracts of drinking water. J Chromatogr 557:413–427

  13. Perry P, Wolff S (1974) New Giemsa method for the differential staining of sister chromatids. Nature 251:156–158

  14. Sakamoto H, Hayatsu H (1990) A simple method for monitoring mutagenicity of river water. Mutagens in Yodo River system, Kyoto-Osaka. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 44:521–528

  15. Sayato Y, Nakamuro K, Ueno H, Goto R (1990) Mutagenicity of adsorbates to a copper-phthalocyanine derivative recovered from municipal river water. Mutation Res 242:313–317

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Takeshi Ohe.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ohe, T., Ito, H. & Kawabuti, M. Gentoxocity of blue rayon extracts from river waters using sister chromatid exchange in cultured mammalian cells. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 25, 293–297 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00210720

Download citation


  • Wastewater
  • Mammalian Cell
  • Wastewater Treatment
  • River Water
  • Metabolic Activation