Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Stimulation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza by fungicides or rhizosphere bacteria

  • 204 Accesses

  • 36 Citations


Stimulation of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi may secure the early establishment of symbiosis and benefit the host plant at an earlier stage of development. The application of Bacillus mycoides resulted in particular in the acceleration of early VA mycorrhiza formation. An increase in vigour of the symbiosis could be measured later in terms of increased sporulation of the mycorrhizal fungi after shoot removal. Natural sporulation during later mycorrhizal development was affected by combination of bacteria and just one mycorrhizal isolate. The stimulation of mycorrhizal development was shown to be non-specific with regard to host plant and the isolate of the VAM fungus. However, the effect could not be achieved in all combinations of soil types and host plants. Application of the systemic fungicides triadimefon and pyrazophos promoted VAM formation. Combinations of fungicide and bacterial treatments were not synergistic.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Abbott LK, Robson AD (1984) The effect of VA-mycorrhizae on plant growth. In: Powell CL, Bagyaraj DJ (eds) VA-mycorrhiza. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, pp 114–130

  2. Alten H von, Lindemann A, Schönbeck F (1991) Increasing VA-mycorrhization with applications of rhizosphere bacteria. In: Keister DL, Cregan PB (eds) The rhizosphere and plant growth. Kluwer, Dordrecht, p 381

  3. Azcon-Aguilar C, Barea JM (1985) Effect of soil microorganisms on formation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza. Trans Br Mycol Soc 84:536–537

  4. Bagyaraj DJ (1984) Interactions with VA mycorrhizal fungi. In: Powell CL, Bagyaraj DJ (eds) VA-mycorrhiza. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, pp 131–153

  5. Baltruschat H, Dehne HW (1986) Auswirkungen einseitiger Mineraldünger auf die VA-Mycorrhiza in einer dreifeldrigen Fruchtfolge. Meded Fac Landbouww Rijksuniv Gent 51:477–484

  6. Barea JM, Azcon-Aguilar C (1982) Interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and soil microorganisms. In: Gianinazzi S, Gianinazzi-Pearson V (eds) Les mycorrhizes, biology and utilization. INRA, Paris, pp 181–193

  7. Baylis GTS (1969) Host treatment and spore production by Endogone. NZ J Bot 7:173–174

  8. Berthelin J, Leyval C (1982) Ability of symbiotic and nonsymbiotic rhizosphere microflora of maize (Zea mays) to weather micas and to promote plant growth and plant nutrition. Plant Soil 68:369–372

  9. Buchenauer H (1987) Mechanism of action of triazolyl fungicides and related compounds. In: Lyr H (ed) Modern selective fungicides. Fischer, Jena, pp 205–232

  10. Buchenauer H (1990) Physiological reactions in the inhibition of plant pathogenic fungi. In: Haug G, Hoffmann H (eds) Chemistry in plant protection. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 217–293

  11. Daft MJ, Nicolson TH (1972) Effect of Endogone mycorrhiza on plant growth. IV. Quantitative relationship between the growth of the host and the development of the endophyte in tomato and maize. New Phytol 71:287–295

  12. Dehne HW (1985) Influence of pesticides on the development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. Colloq INRA 31:255–263

  13. Dehne HW (1986) Untersuchungen zum Einfluß von Pflanzenbehandlungsmitteln auf das Auftreten der VA-Mycorrhiza. Meded Fac Landbouww Rijksuniv Gent 51:465–475

  14. Dehne HW, Backhaus GF (1986) The use of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plant production. I. Inoculum production. Z Pflanzenkr Pflanzenschutz 93:415–425

  15. Douds D, Schenck NC (1990) Increased sporulation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by manipulation of nutrient regimes. Appl Environ Microbiol 2:413–418

  16. Erwin DC (1973) Systemic fungicides: disease control, translocation, and mode of action. Annu Rev Phytopathol 11:389–422

  17. Förster H, Buchenauer H, Grossmann F (1980) Nebenwirkungen der systemischen Fungizide Triadimefon und Triadimenol auf Gerstenpflanzen. II. Cytokininartige Effekte. Z Pflanzenkr Pflanzenschutz 87:640–653

  18. Furlan V, Fortin JA (1973) Formation of endomycorrhizae by Endogone calospora on Allium cepa under three temperature regimes. Nat Can 100:647–677

  19. Furlan V, Fortin JA (1977) Effects of light intensity on the formation of vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizas on Allium cepa by Gigaspora calospora. New Phytol 79:335–340

  20. Hayman DS (1970) Endogone spore numbers in soil and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza in wheat is influenced by season and soil treatment. Trans Br Mycol Soc 54:53–63

  21. Hayman DS (1982) Influence of soils and fertility and survival of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Phytopathology 72:1119–1125

  22. Hetrick BAD (1984) Ecology of VA-mycorrhizal fungi. In: Powell CL, Bagyaraj DJ (eds) VA-mycorrhiza. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, pp 35–55

  23. Jacob F, Neumann ST (1987) Principles of uptake and systemic transport of fungicides within the plant. In: Lyr H (ed) Modern selective fungicides. Fischer, Jena, pp 13–30

  24. Jalali BL, Domsch KH (1975) Effects of systemic fungitoxicants on the development of endotrophic mycorrhiza. In: Sanders FE, Mosse B, Tinker PB (eds) Endomycorrhizas. Academic Press, London New York San Francisco, pp 619–626

  25. Land S (1991) Influence of different soil types on abundance of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in arable soils of North Germany. Mycorrhiza 1:39–44

  26. Lindemann A (1991) Förderung der vasikulär-arbuskulären (VA) Mykorrhiza durch Rhizosphärenbakterien und Fungizide bei Lein und Gerste. Dissertation, University of Hannover

  27. Linderman RG (1988) Mycorrhizal interactions with the rhizosphere microflora: the mycorrhizosphere effect. Phytopathology 78:366–371

  28. Meyer JR, Linderman RG (1986) Selective influence on populations of rhizosphere or rhizoplane bacteria and actinomycetes by mycorrhizas formed by Glomus fasciculatum. Soil Biol Biochem 18:191–196

  29. Mosse B, Stribley DP, Le Tacon F (1981) Ecology of mycorrhizae and mycorrhizal fungi. Adv Microb Ecol 5:137–210

  30. Powell CL, Bagyaraj DJ (1984) VA-mycorrhiza. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla

  31. Redhead JF (1975) Endotrophic mycorrhizas in Nigeria: some aspects of the ecology of the endotrophic mycorrhizal association of Khaga grandifoliola. In: Sanders FE, Mosse B, Tinker PB (eds) Endomycorrhizas. Academic Press, London New York San Francisco, pp 447–461

  32. Saif SR (1977) The influence of stage of host development on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae and endogonaceous spore population in field grown vegetable crops. I. Summergrown crops. New Phytol 79:341–348

  33. Wilson GWT, Hetrick BAD, Kitt DG (1988) Suppression of mycorrhizal growth responses of big bluestem by nonsterile soil. Mycologia 80:338–343

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

von Alten, H., Lindemann, A. & Schönbeck, F. Stimulation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza by fungicides or rhizosphere bacteria. Mycorrhiza 2, 167–173 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00210586

Download citation

Key words

  • Bacillus mycoides
  • Accelerated formation
  • Sporulation
  • Triadimefon
  • Pyrazophos