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Action of an adverse current on the shape of deep water surface waves

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Abstract

It is well established that the shape of surface waves changes when waves meet a current. The effect of an adverse current is particularly interesting from a practical point of view.

A visualization method is used to study the shape change when waves meet such a current, in a large scale laboratory flume. The corresponding observations and measurements are presented in this paper.

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Abbreviations

C 0 :

theoretical phase velocity

E p :

potential energy of the wave/L, along 1 m of crest

H :

total wave height

h 0 :

water depth

k :

wave number

L :

wavelength

n :

apparent radian frequency

N :

wavemaker frequency

s :

wave steepness (s=H/L)

U :

horizontal velocity of pure current

U m :

mean value of the current over depth

z :

vertical distance from the bottom

δ :

rear crest steepness

ɛ :

front crest steepness

λ :

vertical asymmetry factor, describing the asymmetry with respect to a vertical axis through the crest

σ :

intrinsec frequency

μ :

horizontal asymmetry factor describing the asymmetry with respect to an horizontal axis (the still water level).μ is the ratio between the crest elevation above the still water level, and the wave height

References

  1. Bonmarin P;Rochefort R;Bourguel M (1989) Surface wave profile measurement by image analysis. Exp Fluids 7: 17–24

  2. Brevik I;Aas B (1980) Flume experiment on waves and currents I. Rippled bed. Coastal Engineering 3: 149–177

  3. Hedges TS (1987) Combinations of waves and currents: An introduction. Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs. part. 1, 82: 567–585

  4. Johnson JW (1947) The refraction of surface waves by currents. Transactions. American Geophysical Union 28: 867–874

  5. Kjeldsen SP; Myraug D (1978) Kinematics and dynamics of breaking waves. Report no. STF60 A78100. Ships in Rough Seas, 4 Chap. 3.3, 62–92

  6. Mallory JK (1974) Abnormal waves on the south east coast of South Africa. Int Hydrogr Rev 51: 99–129

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Author information

Correspondence to P. Bonmarin.

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Cite this article

Bonmarin, P., Bartholin, F. & Ramamonjiarisoa, A. Action of an adverse current on the shape of deep water surface waves. Experiments in Fluids 18, 438–444 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00208466

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Keywords

  • Water Surface
  • Fluid Dynamics
  • Surface Wave
  • Deep Water
  • Shape Change