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Geology of bogala mine, ceylon and the origin of vein-type graphite

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Abstract

The unique vein-type graphite deposits of Ceylon occur in high-grade metamorphic terrain of Early Precambrian metasedimentary series. At the Bogala graphite mine, the rocks are of the granulite and almandine amphibolite metamorphic facies. The direction of veins is strongly controlled by the two major regional lineation directions; veins with a third direction are also present. The veins are very irregular in length, width, and local attitude and contain only minor amounts of other minerals than pure graphite. Each vein is made up of a number of parallel graphite sheets oriented parallel to the vein. It is suggested that the Ceylon graphite veins, and possibly all similar deposits, form by lateral secretion. The graphite is obtained from the surrounding carbon-rich sediments and transported in the solid phase as the slippery graphite grains move along grain boundaries down a pressure gradient. The graphite accumulates along the relatively low-pressure zones of fractures. Each graphite sheet within the vein represents a period of pressure release along the fracture.

Zusammenfassung

Die einzigartigen gangförmigen Graphitlagerstätten von Ceylon befinden sich in einem hochgradig metamorphen Gebiet präkambrischer Sedimente. Die Bogala Grube liegt in einer Granulit- und Almandin-Amphibolitzone. Die Richtung der Gänge wird weitgehend bestimmt durch die beiden regionalen Gesteins-Hauptrichtungen; doch gibt es auch Gänge, die einer dritten Richtung folgen. Länge, Breite und lokaler Verlauf der Gänge sind sehr unregelmäßig. Neben reinem Graphit weisen sie nur geringe Mengen anderer Mineralien auf. Jeder einzelne Gang besteht aus einer Reihe gangparalleler Graphitzonen. Es besteht die Vermutung, daß die ceylonesischen Graphitgänge und möglicherweise alle ähnlichen Lagerstätten durch Lateralsekretion entstanden sind. Der Graphit stammt aus den stark karbonhaltigen Sedimenten der Umgebung und wird im festen Zustand umgelagert, indem die Graphitblättchen sich auf Korngrenzen in Richtung des Druckabfalls bewegen. Der Graphit sammelt sich entlang den Bruchzonen mit relativ niedrigem Druck an. Jedes Graphitband im Gang ist auf eine Druckentlastung entlang der Bruchzone zurückzuführen.

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Erdosh, G. Geology of bogala mine, ceylon and the origin of vein-type graphite. Mineral. Deposita 5, 375–382 (1970). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00206734

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Keywords

  • Graphite
  • Fracture System
  • Graphite Schist
  • Graphite Deposit
  • Garnet Gneiss