Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Comparison between the fluid characteristics of the Rodalquilar and two neighbouring epithermal gold deposits in Spain

  • 166 Accesses

  • 7 Citations

Abstract

The operating Rodalquilar gold deposit and the abandoned Triunfo and Maria Josefa gold mines are located within the Sierra del Cabo de Gata volcanic field some 40 km east of Almeria in SE Spain. While the gold mineralization at Rodalquilar is mainly controlled by caldera-tectonics, vein structures at Triunfo and Maria Josefa are not. Wall-rock alteration at Triunfo and Maria Josefa is characterized by argillic alteration (illite/sericite, kaolinite). The alteration zonation around the gold-mineralized vein structures at Rodalquilar ranges from advanced argillic alteration (porous quartz, alunite, pyrophyllite, dickite) over argillic alteration into a regionally developed propylitization. Fluid inclusion studies from all three mines indicate that gold was deposited from low-salinity fluids (2–5 wt.% NaCl equivalent) between 170° and 250 °C. However, the hydrothermal system at Rodalquilar was fed by a second fluid source. High-salinity, halite and/or sylvite-bearing, liquid-rich, and vapour-dominated, CO2-bearing fluid inclusions are assumed to be of magmatic origin. High sulfidation ore mineral assemblages at depth (covellite, enargite, tennantite) and part of the advanced argillic alteration can be related to these fluids. Thus, part of those features which attribute the Rodalquilar gold deposit to the acid-sulfate or high sulfidation type of epithermal gold deposits, stem from magmatically derived fluids which are typical for a porphyry environment, whereas gold mineralization at all three localities is associated with low-salinity fluids, probably of marine origin.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Arribas, A. Jr., Rytuba, J.J., Cunningham, C.G., Kelly, W.C., Rye, R.O., Castroviejo, R.: Rodalquilar deposits, Spain, first example of caldera-related epithermal gold mineralization in Europe; part 2, ore genesis. — in: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 20:351 (1988)

  2. Arribas, A. Jr., Cunningham, C.G., Rytuba, J.J., Arribas, A. Sr.: Evolution of the volcanic rocks and gold-alunite deposits of the Cabo de Gata volcanic field, Rodalquilar, S.E. Spain. — International Symposium in Europe: Gold 89, Toulouse, Guidebook for excursion 4, 97 pp. (1989)

  3. Bellon, H., Bordet, P., Montenat, C.: Chronologie du magmatisme neogene des Cordillères betiques (Espagne méridionale). — Bull. Soc. geol. France, (7), XXV, 205–217 (1983)

  4. Bordet, P.: Le volcanisme miocene des Sierras de Gata et de Carboneras (Espagne du Sud-est). — Doc. et Trav. IGAL, Paris, 8, 70pp. (1985)

  5. Friedrich, G.: Petrographische und erzmikroskopische Beobachtungen an der Goldlagerstätte Rodalquilar, Prov. Almeria/ Spanien. — N. Jb. Mineral., Abb., 94:208–227 (1960)

  6. Friedrich, G., Kross, G., Wiechowski, A.: Goldmineralisation in Rodalquilar, Spanien. — Geol. Jb., Reihe A, H-75, 345–359 (1984)

  7. Hayba, D.O., Bethke, P.M., Heald, P., Foley, N.K.: Geologie, minéralogie, and geochemical characteristics of volcanic hosted epithermal precious-metal deposits. — in Berger, B.R. and Bethke, P.M. (eds.): Geology and Geochemistry of Epithermal Systems; Society of Economic Geologists; Reviews in Economic Geology, 2:129–167 (1985)

  8. Heald, P., Foley, N.K., Hayba, D.O.: Comparative anatomy of volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits: Acide-sulfate and adulariasericite types. — Econ. Geol. 82:1–26 (1987)

  9. Hedenquist, J.W., Henley, R.W.: Hydrothermal eruptions in the Waiotapu Geothermal System, New Zealand: Their origin, associated breccias, and reletion to precious metal mineralization. — Econ. Geol. 80:1640–1668 (1985)

  10. Henley, R.W.: The geothermal framework for epithermal deposits. — in Berger, B.R. and Bethke, P.M. (eds.): Geology and Geochemistry of Epithermal systems; Society of Economic Geologists; Reviews in Economic Geology, 2:1–24 (1985)

  11. Henley, R.W., McNabb, A.: Magmatic vapor plumes and ground-water interaction in porphyry copper environment. — Econ. Geol. 73:1–20(1978)

  12. Huston, D.L., Large, R.R.: A chemical model for the concentration of gold in volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits. — Ore Geology Reviews, 4:171–200 (1989)

  13. Kisters, A.: Die goldvererzten Gangstrukturen Maria Josefa und Triunfo, Rodalquilar/SE-Spanien: Geologisch-mineralogisch-geochemische Untersuchungen. — Diploma thesis (unpubl.), Aachen University of Technology, 116 pp (1988)

  14. Kross, G.: Die Exploration der Goldlagerstätte Rodalquilar, SE-Spanien. — In: Edelmetalle, Schriftenreihe der GDMB, Heft 44, 117–124(1986)

  15. Lodder, W.: Gold-alunite deposits and zonal wall-rock alteration near Rodalquilar. — Univ. Amsterdam, Geol. Inst., Medeling no. 318, 93 pp. (1966)

  16. Pichavant, M., Ramboz, C., Weisbrod, A.: Fluid immiscibility in natural processes: use and misuse of fluid inclusion data; I. Phase equilibria analyses — A theoretical and geometrical approach. — Chemical Geology 37:1 -27 (1982)

  17. Pohl, W.: Geologie, Petrologie und hydrothermale Alteration der tertiären Vulkanite der Sierra del Cabo de Gata, Spanien. — Wissenschaftlicher Abschlußbericht zum DFG-Projekt Po 270/3-1, unveröffentlicht, 23 S. (1987)

  18. Saenger-vonOepen, P., Friedrich, G., Vogt, JH.: Fluid evolution, wallrock alteration and ore mineralization associated with the Rodalquilar epithermal gold-deposit in south-east Spain. — Mineral. Deposita 24:235–243 (1989)

  19. Shepherd, J.P., Rankins, A.H., Alderton, D.H.M.: A practical guide to fluid inclusion studies. — Blackie & Sons Ltd., 239 pp. (1985)

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sänger-von Oepen, P., Friedrich, G. & Kisters, A. Comparison between the fluid characteristics of the Rodalquilar and two neighbouring epithermal gold deposits in Spain. Mineral. Deposita 25, S36–S41 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00205248

Download citation

Keywords

  • Pyrite
  • Fluid Inclusion
  • Gold Mineralization
  • Alunite
  • Covellite