Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Aluminum concentrations in tissues of rats: effect of soft drink packaging

  • 91 Accesses

  • 7 Citations


Aluminum is a commonly occurring trace element for which no nutritional requirements have been set. Some non-conclusive evidence exists suggesting a need of aluminum for growth, reproduction or health of man and animals. There is concern that exposure or consumption of aluminum may be toxic to humans and animals. The objective of the current study was to compare tissue levels of aluminum of rats fed soft drinks packaged in aluminum cans, glass bottles or distilled water. Thirty male weanling rats (Sprague-Dawley) were divided into three treatment groups of 10 rats each. All rats were fed rodent chow ad libitum throughout the study. Three different fluids, i.e. distilled water, diet soft drinks from aluminum cans and diet soft drinks from glass bottles, were fed for a period of 3 weeks. Aluminum contents of tissues were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Canned soft drink fed rats had significantly higher blood, liver and bone aluminum concentration than rats that were given glass bottled soft drink. There was a 69% higher bone aluminum concentration and 16% lower femur weight in rats fed aluminum canned soft drinks when compared with rats fed with distilled water.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Bernuzzi V, Desor D, Lehr, PR. 1989 Developmental alterations in offspring of female rats orally intoxicated by aluminum chloride or lactate during gestation. Teratology 40, 21.

  2. Chan YL, Alfrey AC, Posen L, et al. 1983 The effect of aluminum on normal and uremic rats: tissue distribution, vitamin D metabolites and quantitative bone histology. Calcified Tissue Int. 35, 344.

  3. Garrels RM, Mackenzie FT, Hunt C. 1975 Chemical Cycles and the Global Environment. W Kaufmann, Los Altos, CA, USA.

  4. Greger JL. 1985 Aluminum content of the American diet. Food Technol 39, 73.

  5. Greger JL, Bula EN, Gum ET. 1985 Mineral metabolism of rats fed moderate levels of various aluminum compounds for short periods of time. J Nutr 115, 1708.

  6. Greger JL, Bula EN, Gum ET. 1986 Mineral metabolism of rats fed various levels of aluminum hydroxide. Biol Trace Elem Res 9, 67.

  7. Greger JL, Goetz W, Sullivan D. 1985 Aluminum levels in foods cooked and stored in aluminum pans, trays and foil. J Food Protect 48, 772.

  8. Hem JD. 1986 Geochemistry and aqueous chemistry of aluminum. Kidney Int 29, 53.

  9. Inoue T, Ishiwata H, Yoshihira K. 1988 Aluminum levels in food-stimulating solvents and various foods cooked in aluminum pans. J Agric Food Chem 36, 599.

  10. Kaehny WD, Hegg AP, Alfrey AC. 1977 Gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum from aluminum containing antacids. New Engl J Med 296, 1389.

  11. Koning JH. 1981 Aluminum pots as a source of dietary aluminum (letter). New Engl Med 304, 172.

  12. Lione A, Allen PV, Smith JC. 1984 Aluminum coffee percolators as a source of dietary aluminum. Food Chem Toxicol 22, 265.

  13. Miller RG, Kopier FC, Felty KC, et al. 1984 The occurences of aluminum in drinking water. J Am Water Works Ass 76, 84.

  14. Ondreicka R, Ginter E, Kortus J. 1966 Chronic toxicity of aluminum in rats and mice and its effect on phosphorus metabolism. Br J Ind Med 23, 305.

  15. Pennington JAT. 1988 Aluminum content of foods and diets. Food Additives Contaminants 5, 166.

  16. Slanina P, Frech W, Bernhardson A, et al. 1985 Influence of dietary factors on aluminum absorption and retention in the brain and bone of rats. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 56, 331.

  17. Slanina P, Frech W, Ekstrom G, et al. 1986 Dietary citric acid enhances absorption of aluminum in actacids. Clin Chem 32, 539.

  18. Stumn W, Morgan JJ. 1970 Aquatic Chemistry. Wiley-Interscience, New York.

  19. Weberg R, Berstad A. 1986 Gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum from single doses of aluminum containing antacids in man. Eur J Clin Invest 16, 428.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Constance Kies.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kandiah, J., Kies, C. Aluminum concentrations in tissues of rats: effect of soft drink packaging. Biometals 7, 57–60 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00205195

Download citation


  • aluminum
  • feces
  • rats
  • tissues