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A note on the reafference principle

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Abstract

Two alternative circuits to realize the reafference principle are considered and quantitatively analyzed. Both are combinations of a conventional control loop with negative feedback and linear transfer functions, as well as of an efference copy branch. The feedback control loop compensates for passive movements of the body or of its parts, and generates active movements, whenever the set point differs from zero. The efference copy branch should eliminate sensory messages to higher brain centres during active body movements and, thus, mediate perceptual stability. In one of the combinations, discussed also briefly by Mittelstaedt (1971), the efference copy branch interacts with and thus modifies the properties of the feedback loop. The performance of this circuit is very sensitive to variations of the system parameters and, therefore, requires precise adjustment. When the transfer function of the efference copy branch exactly matches that of the feedback loop and its gain amounts to 1, this circuit performs as a control loop with an integrator in the negative feedback branch: there is no steady state control error. However, for certain parameter combination the circuit becomes unstable. In the alternative circuit proposed here, the efference copy branch does not interfere with the feedback loop. It is robust against parameter variations. The transient properties of both circuits are described under simplified assumptions regarding the linear transfer functions in the different branches.

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Varjú, D. A note on the reafference principle. Biol. Cybern. 63, 315–323 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00203455

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Keywords

  • Feedback Loop
  • Feedback Control
  • Control Loop
  • Conventional Control
  • Linear Transfer Function