Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Volcanogenic mineralization and a rhyolite dome in the Arabian Shield

  • 88 Accesses

  • 4 Citations

Abstract

The district of Mahawiyah in the Proterozoic shield of Arabia contains a group of Zn-Cu-Au-Ag-Ba mineral prospects in folded meta-sedimentary, volcanoclastic and volcanic rocks, ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite. The mineralization occurs in veins and as strata-bound, disseminated orebodies associated with intense argillic alteration of adjacent rocks. An intrusive rhyolite dome or laccolith is situated at the centre of an eight square kilometre area of slight but pervasive alteration whose outline can be traced from aerial photographs and within which many of the ore mineral occurrences lie. A model is proposed to explain the pattern of alteration in the volcano-sedimentary pile and formation of the volcanogenic mineralization, based on a concept of the dome acting as a heat source to drive a geothermal "cell". Circulating connate-hydrothermal fluids could have caused alteration and redistribution of trace metals within the volcanics and sediments which mantle the sub-volcanic, rhyolite intrusion. The ore genetic model implies that clusters of veins, disseminated strata-bound and stratiform massive sulphide orebodies occur in distinct areas of the shield, marked by tracts of pervasive alteration which can be identified in aerial photographs and satellite images.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Allcott, G. H.: Diamond drilling at the Ma'dan ancient mine. In: Mineral Resources Research 1968–69, 34–39, Saudi Arabia, Jedda: Directorate General of Mineral Resources 1970

  2. Anon.: Mineral Occurrence Documentation System (MODS) index. Tech. Record TR-1974-3, Saudi Arabia, Jedda: Directorate General of Mineral Resources 1974

  3. Brown, G. F.: Tectonic map of the Arabian Peninsula (and notes), (scale 1:1, 000, 000) Saudi Arabia, Jedda: Directorate General of Mineral Resources 1972

  4. Daalhoff, H. van: Mineral locality map of the Saudi Arabian Shield, (scale 1:2, 000, 000), Map GM-15, Saudi Arabia, Jedda: Directorate General of Mineral Resources 1974

  5. Delfour, J.: Geology of the Nuqra quadrangle, 25E, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Map GM-28, Saudi Arabia, Jedda: Directorate General of Mineral Resources 1977

  6. Delfour, J.: Comparative study of mineralization in the Nubian and Arabian shields. Miner. Resources Bull. 15, 22 p., Saudi Arabia, Jedda: Directorate General of Mineral Resources 1976

  7. Greenwood, W. R.: Reconnaissance geology of the Jabal Ibrahim quadrangle, Sheet 20/41C, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Map GM-22, Saudi Arabia, Jedda: Directorate General of Mineral Resources 1975

  8. Greenwood, W. R., Hadley, D. G., Anderson, R. E., Fleck, R. T., Schmidt, D. L.: Late Proterozoic cratonization in southwest Saudi Arabia, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 280, 517–527 (1976)

  9. Grindley, G. W., Browne, P. R. L.: Structural and hydrological factors controlling the permeabilities of some hot water geothermal fields. 377–386, San Francisco: U. N. Symposium on Geothermal Energy 1975

  10. Henley, R. W.: Some fluid dynamics and ore genesis. Trans. Instn. Min. Metall. (sect. B: Appl. earth Sci.) 82, B1–8 (1973)

  11. Jackaman, B.: Genetic and environmental factors controlling the formation of the massive sulphide deposits of Wadi Bidah and Wadi Wassat, Saudi Arabia. Tech. Record TR-1972–1, 244 p., Saudi Arabia, Jedda: Directorate General of Mineral Resources 1972

  12. Luce, R. W., Bagdady, A., Roberts, R. J.: Geology and ore deposits of the Dahd adh Dhahab district, Saudi Arabia. Open-file rept 195, U. S. Geol. Survey, Saudi Arabian project (unpubl.) 29 p. (1975)

  13. Moore, J. McM.: Regional metamorphism as an ore-forming process in the Arabian Shield. Trans. Instn Min. Metall. (sect. B. Appl. earth sci.) 84, B59–62 (1975)

  14. Moore, J. McM.: A major lineament in the Arabian Shield and its relationship to mineralization. Mineral. Deposita (Berl.), 11, 323–328 (1976)

  15. Ohmoto, H., Rye, R. O.: Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions in the Kuroko deposits, Japan. Econ. Geol. 69, 947–953 (1974)

  16. Rashid, A. R. R. M. Abo: The geology and mineralization of the Mahawiyah area, Hijaz Quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. M. Sc. thesis, Imperial College, University of London (unpubl.) 106 p. (1971)

  17. Roberts, R. J., Doe, B. R., Delevaux, M. H.: Genesis of Precambrian sulfide deposits. (abstract) p. 183, Sydney: 25th Int. geol. Cong. 1976

  18. Roberts, R. J.: The genesis of disseminated and massive sulfide deposits in Saudi Arabia. Open-file rept 207, U. S. Geol. Survey, Saudi Arabian project (unpubl.) 54 p. (1976)

  19. Solomon, M.: Volcanic massive sulphide deposits and their host rocks — a review and an explanation. In: Handbook of stratabound and stratiform ore deposits. Vol. 6, 21–54. Ed. K. H. Wolf. Amsterdam — Oxford — New York: Elsevier 1976

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Moore, J.M. Volcanogenic mineralization and a rhyolite dome in the Arabian Shield. Mineral. Deposita 13, 123–129 (1978). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00202912

Download citation

Keywords

  • Trace Metal
  • Volcanic Rock
  • Satellite Image
  • Aerial Photograph
  • Massive Sulphide