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A micromethod for the isolation of drugs from blood using Amberlite XAD-2


The extraction of drugs from small blood samples (1 ml or less) for subsequent quantitative determination is described. Isolation was carried out by adsorption of the drugs to Amberlite XAD-2 resin utilizing a batch procedure that enabled the simultaneous extraction of up to 200 samples in approx. 5 hours. A new desorption technique yielded extracts of high purity that could be used directly for gas chromatographic or radioimmunological determinations, even if hemolyzed or putrid blood was to be examined. The following 26 substances were quantitated after addition to postmortem blood specimens at concentrations of 1–10 μg/ml: tilidine, diphenhydramine, dibenzepine, imipramine, chlorpromazine, amphetamine, pentazocine, phenacetin, methaqualone, meprobamate, parathion, diazepam, digoxin, β-methyldigoxin, carbromal, glutethimide, amobarbital, pentobarbital, cyclobarbital, phenobarbital, diphenylhydantoin, carbutamide, tolbutamide, glycodiazin, tolazamide and chlorpropamide. Thereby recoveries of 60–100% could be achieved. The reproducibility of the procedure was satisfactory as demonstrated by coefficients of variation of 3.7–8%.


Es wird die Extraktion von Arzneistoffen aus kleinen Blutproben (1 ml oder weniger) für die nachfolgende quantitative Bestimmung beschrieben. Die Isolierung der Substanzen erfolgte durch Adsorption an ein Kunstharz (Amberlite XAD-2) mittels eines Batch-Verfahrens, das die Aufarbeitung von bis zu 200 Proben in ungefähr 5 Stunden ermöglichte. Die Anwendung einer neuartigen Desorptionstechnik führte selbst bei zersetzten Blutproben zu sehr sauberen Extrakten, die direkt für gaschromatographische oder radioimmunologische Bestimmungen verwendet werden konnten. Nach Zusatz zu Leichenblut in Konzentrationen von 1–10 μg/ml wurden die folgenden 26 Wirkstoffe quantitativ bestimmt: Tilidin, Diphenhydramin, Dibenzepin, Imipramin, Chlorpromazin, Amphetamin, Pentazocin, Phenacetin, Methaqualon, Meprobamat, Parathion, Diazepam, Digoxin, β-Methyldigoxin, Carbromal, Glutethimid, Amobarbital, Pentobarbital, Cyclobarbital, Phenobarbital, Diphenylhydantoin, Carbutamid, Tolbutamid, Glycodiazin, Tolazamid und Chlorpropamid. Dabei konnten Wiederfindungen von 60–100% erreicht werden. Die Reproduzierbarkeit war bei Variationskoeffizienten von 3,7–8% zufriedenstellend.

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Schlicht, H.J., Gelbke, H.P. A micromethod for the isolation of drugs from blood using Amberlite XAD-2. Z Rechtsmed 81, 25–30 (1978).

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Key words

  • Amberlite XAD-2, Isolation of Drugs
  • Drugs, Isolation in Blood


  • Amberlite XAD-2, Isolierung von Arzneistoffen
  • Arzneistoffe, Isolierung im Blut