When given during initiation, antithymocyte serum (ATS) increased tumor incidence by 83%, increased the number of tumors per animal from 2.6 to 4.2, and caused a decrease in the latent period to appearance of the first tumor by 27% as compared to animals receiving only 9,10-dimethylbenzo(a)anthracene (DMBA) as initiating agent and phorbolmyristateacetate (TPA) as promotor. The effect of ATS when given during promotion was less pronounced: tumor incidence was increased by 50% and the average number of tumors per animal was 3.1. Antilymphocyte serum (ALS) given during initiation caused an increase in tumor incidence by 33% and the average number of tumors was 3.1 per animal. When ALS was given during promotion the effect on tumor formation was neglibible, i.e., 52 tumors were observed in 21 animals, as against 48 tumors in 18 DMBA/TPA-treated animals.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Andrews, E. J.: Evidence of the nonimmune regression of chemically induced papillomas in mouse skin. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 47, 653 (1971)
Ball, J. K.: Immunosuppression and carcinogenesis: Contrasting effect with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, benz(a)pyrene and 3-methylcholantrene. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 44, 1 (1970)
Berenblum, I.: A speculative review: The probable nature of promoting action and its significance in the understanding of the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 14, 471 (1954)
Berenblum, I., Shubik, P. A.: A new quantitative approach to the study of the stages of chemical carcinogenesis in the mouse's skin. Br. J. Cancer 1, 379 (1947)
Berenblum, I., Shubik, P.: An experimental study of the initiating stage of carcinogenesis and a re-examination of the somatic cell mutation theory of cancer. Br. J. Cancer 3, 109 (1949)
Bock, E. G., Fjelde, A., Fox, H. W., Klein, E.: Tumor promotion by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a potent skin sensitizer. Cancer Res. 29:179 (1969)
Bolton, P. M.: The effect of immune depression on chemical carcinogenesis in the rat. II. Antilymphocyte serum. Oncology 27, 520 (1973)
Boutwell, R. K.: The function and mechanism of promoters of carcinogenesis. CRC Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 2, 419 (1974)
Burnet, E. M.: The concept of immunologic surveillance. Prog. Exp. Tumor Res. 13, 1 (1970)
Curtis, E. L., Stenbäck, F., Ryan, W. L.: Initiation-promotion skin carcinogenesis and immunological competence. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 150, 61 (1975)
Denlinger, R. H., Swenberg, J. A., Koestner, A., Wechsler, W.: Differential effect of immunosuppression on the induction of nervous system and bladder tumors by n-methyl-n-nitrosourea. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 50, 87 (1973)
Good, R. A.: Immunodeficiency and malignancy. In: Host environment interactions in the etiology of cancer in man. Doll, R., Vodopija, I., and Davis, W. (eds.), p. 265. Lyons: WHO International Agency for Research in Cancer 1973
Grant, G. A., Roe, F. J. C.: Effect of germfree status and antilymphocyte serum given at birth on induction of tumors in mice by a chemical carcinogen given at birth. Nature 223, 1060 (1969)
Lance, E. M.: Antilymphocyte serum mechanism of action. Transplant. Proc. 4, 473 (1972)
Lappe, M. A., Prehn, R. T.: Immunological surveillance at the macroscopical level. Nonselective elimination of premalignant skin papillomas. Cancer Res. 29, 2374 (1969)
Malmgren, R. A., Bennison, B. E., McKinley, T. W., Jr. Reduced antibody titers in mice treated with carcinogeneic and cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 79, 484 (1952)
Penn, I.: Chemical immunosuppression and human cancer. Cancer 34, 147 (1974)
Prehn, R. T.: Function of depressed immunologic reactivity during carcinogenesis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 31, 791 (1963)
Prehn, R. T.: The relationship of immunology to carcinogenesis. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 164, 449 (1969)
Stenbäck, F.: Promotion in the morphogenesis of chemically inducible skin tumours. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. [Suppl.] 208, 1 (1969)
Stenbäck, F., Garcia, A., Shubik, P.: Present status of the concept of promoting action and cocarcinogenesis in skin. In: The physiopathology of cancer, p. 155. Basel: Karger 1974
Stjernswärd, J.: Effect of Calmette-Guérin and/or methylcholanthrene on the antibody-forming cells measured at the cellular level by a hemolytic plaque test. Cancer Res. 26, 1591 (1966)
Stjernswärd, J.: Further immunological studies of chemical carcinogens. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 38, 515 (1967)
Szakal, A. K., Hanna, M. G., Jr.: Immunosuppression and carcinogenesis in hamsters during topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 35, 173 (1969)
Wagner, J. L., Haughton, G.: Immune suppression by antilymphocyte serum and its effect on tumors induced by 3-methylcholanthrene in mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 46, 1 (1971)
Woods, D. A.: Influence of antilymphocyte serum on DMBA induction of oral carcinomas. Nature 224, 276 (1969)
About this article
Cite this article
Stenbäck, F., Curtis, G. & Ryan, W. Effect of ALS or ATS administration on tumor formation in two-stage skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Immunol Immunother 6, 125–128 (1979). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00200142
- Cancer Research
- Latent Period
- Tumor Formation