Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Regional and local variations in the composition of the wolframite series from SW Japan and possible factors controlling compositional variations

  • 133 Accesses

  • 11 Citations


The regional and local variations in the composition of the wolframite series associated with the ilmeniteseries and magnetite-series granitoids in the Inner Zone of SW Japan were investigated using X-ray diffraction and microprobe analyses. It is concluded that the variation in Mn/Fe ratios in the source materials (granitic magmas in most cases) is the dominant factor controlling the regional variation in the wolframite compositions, while, as exemplified by the Kaneuchi mine, Kyoto Prefecture, the wallrock chemistry and pH of ore fluids are responsible for the local variation within a single vein system. Within a fresh euhedral crystal from the mine, only slight compositional variation of less than 3 mole% MnWO4 is found in the form of oscillatory zoning. This study, combined with the fluid inclusion research, indicates that the wolframite compositions (Mn/Fe ratios) cannot be used as a geothermometer.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Barabanov, V.F.: Geochemistry of tungsten. Internat. Geol. Rev. 13:332–344 (1971)

  2. Bird, M.L., Gair, J.E.: Compositional variations on wolframite from the Hamme (Tungsten Queen) mine, North Carolina. J. Research U.S. Geol. Surv. 4:583–588 (1976)

  3. Buhl, Josef-Christian, Willgallis, A.: On the hydrothermal synthesis of wolframite. Chem. Geol. 48:93–102 (1985)

  4. Geological Survey of Japan: Geological Map of Japan, Scale 1:1,000,000. (1978)

  5. Groves, D.I., Baker, W.E.: The regional variation in composition of wolframites from Tasmania, Econ. Geol. 67:362–368 (1972)

  6. Gundlach, H., Thormann, W.: Versuch einer Deutung der Entstehung von Wolfram und Zinnlagerstätten. Z. Deutsch. Geol. Ges. 112:1–35 (1960)

  7. Horner, C.: Solubility and hydrolysis of FeWO4 and MnWO4 in the 25°–300°C range, and the zonation of wolframite. Chem. Geol. 27:85–97 (1979)

  8. Hsu, L.C.: The stability relations of the wolframite series. Amer. Mineral. 61:944–955 (1976)

  9. Imaoka, T., Nakashima, K.: Iron-titanium oxide minerals of Cretaceous to Paleogene volcanic rocks in western Chugoku district, Southwest Japan. J. Japan. Assoc. Min. Petr. Econ. Geol. 77:235–255 (1982)

  10. Ishihara, S.: The Mo-W metallogenic provinces and the related granitic provinces. Min. Geol. 23:13–32 (1973) (in Japanese)

  11. Ishihara, S.: The magnetite-series and ilmenite-series granitic rocks. Min. Geol. 27:293–305 (1977)

  12. Ishihara, S., Matsuhisa, Y.: A correlation between magnetite and their oxygen isotopic compositions of magnetite- and ilmeniteseries granitoids. (Preprint in Japanese, Ann. Meet. Geol. Soc. Japan at Kochi): (1977)

  13. Kanaya, H., Ishihara, S.: Regional variation of magnetic susceptibility of the granitic rocks in Japan. J. Japan. Assoc. Min. Petr. Econ. Geol. 68, 211–224 (1973) (in Japanese)

  14. Kinosaki, Y.: On the granitic rocks in Chugoku, and the molybdenite and wolframite deposits in them. Geol. Rept. Hiroshima Univ. 3:61–77 (1953) (in Japanese)

  15. Nakashima, K.: Study on the Kaneuchi-Tsudo deposits, Kyoto, Japan, with special reference to factors to control Mn/Fe ratio of wolframite series. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Hiroshima University: (1979) (in Japanese)

  16. Nakashima, K., Watanabe, M., Soeda, A.: X-ray and microprobe analysis of wolframite series from the Kaneuchi mine, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. J. Japan. Assoc. Min. Petr. Econ. Geol. 80:321–336 (1985)

  17. Ölsner, O.: Über erzgebirgische Wolframite. Ber. Freiberger Geol. Ges. 20:44–49 (1944)

  18. Sasaki, A.: Variation of unit cell parameters in wolframite series. Miner. Jour. 2, 375–396 (1959)

  19. Sasaki, A.: Some problems on the wolframite series. Bull. Geol. Surv. Japan. 12:89 (1961) (Abstract in Japanese)

  20. Sasaki, A., Ishihara, S.: Sulfur isotopic composition of the magnetite-series and ilmenite-series granitoids in Japan. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 68:107–115 (1979)

  21. Schröcke, H.: Isomorphiebeziehungen in der Wolframitgruppe. Beitr. Mineral. Petrogr. 7:166–206 (1959/1960)

  22. Schröcke, H., Trumm, A., Hochleitner, R.: Über den Transport von Wolfram und den Absatz von Wolfram-Doppel-Oxiden in fluiden wäßrigen Lösungen. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48:1791 (1984)

  23. Shibata, K., Ishihara, S.: K-Ar ages of the major tungsten and molybdenum deposits in Japan. Econ. Geol. 69:1207–1214 (1974)

  24. Shibue, Y.: Applications of thermodynamic data of the stability fields of ferbelite, huebnerite, and ferric tungstate. N. Jb. Miner. Mh. 3:125–132 (1982)

  25. Soeda, A., Takeno, S., Watanabe, M.: Mineralogical study on the wolframite series from the Chugoku district, Southwest Japan (I). Relationships between lattice parameters and chemical compositions. J. Japan. Assoc. Min. Petr. Econ. Geol. 74:357–375 (1979)

  26. Taylor, R.G., Hosking, K.F.G.: Manganese-iron ratios in wolframite, South Crofty mine, Cornwall. Econ. Geol. 65:47–53 (1970)

  27. Tsusue, A., Ishihara, S.: The iron-titanium oxides in the granitic rocks of Southwest Japan. Min. Geol. 24:13–30 (1974) (in Japanese)

  28. Watanabe, M., Shibata, K., Soeda, A.: K-Ar ages of base and precious metal mineralization in the Tungsten Province, Southwest Japan. Geochem. J. 18:189–193 (1984)

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Nakashima, K., Watanabe, M. & Soeda, A. Regional and local variations in the composition of the wolframite series from SW Japan and possible factors controlling compositional variations. Mineral. Deposita 21, 200–206 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00199801

Download citation


  • Japan
  • Mineral Resource
  • Regional Variation
  • Fluid Inclusion
  • Local Variation