Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Strength and structure of stems from fast grown Pinus radiata

  • 52 Accesses

  • 3 Citations

Summary

Segments of living stems from 2-year-old, fast growing Pinus radiata, established on a fertile ex-pasture, were examined in terms of their bending strength parallel to the grain. Stem anatomical and structural variables were examined to identify variables that could explain variation in bending strength. Half of the seedlings were physically supported to minimise the confounding effects of compression wood production in response to environmental stresses. Differences between seedlings and cuttings were examined. Variation in microfibril angle and lignin content was sufficient to account for 81% of the variation in bending strength. A positive correlation between both of these variables and elasticity was evident. Few differences were found to be caused by the support treatment or between seedlings and cuttings. The support treatment resulted in significantly fewer branches in the top most whorl, while cuttings had less branches in this whorl than seedlings.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bail IR, Pederick LA (1990) Stem deformity in Pinus radiata on highly fertile sites: expression and genetic variation. Aust For 52: 309–320

  2. Birk EM (1990) Poor tree form of Pinus radiata D. Don on former pasture sites in New South Wales. Aust For 53: 104–112

  3. Boyd J (1972) Tree growth stresses. V. Evidence of an origin in differentiation and lignification. Wood Sci Tech 6: 251–62

  4. Boyd J (1973a) Compression wood force generation and functional mechanics. NZJ For Sci 3: 240–258

  5. Boyd J, Foster RC (1974) Tracheid anatomy changes as responses to changing structural requirements of the tree. Wood Sci Tech 8: 91–105

  6. Cannell MGR, Morgan J (1987) Young's modulus of sections of living branches and tree trunks. Tree Physiol 3: 355–364

  7. Carlyle JC, Turvey ND, Hopmans P, Downes GM (1989) Stem deformation in Pinus radiata associated with previous land use. Can J For Res 19: 96–105

  8. Crooke WM, Simpson WE (1971) Determination of ammonium in Kjeldahl digests of crops by an automated procedure. J Sci Food Agric 22:9–10

  9. Downes GM, Turvey ND (1990a) Lignification of wood from deformed Pinus radiata. For Ecol Manage 37: 123–130

  10. Downes GM, Turvey ND (1990b) The effect of nitrogen and copper on the characteristics of woody tissue in seedlings of Pinus radiata D. Don. Can J For Res 20: 1369–1377

  11. Downes GM, Turvey ND (1992) Relationships between stem structure and bending strength in Pinus radiata seedlings. (in press)

  12. Fielding JM (1970) Trees grown from cuttings compared with trees grown from seed (Pinus radiata D. Don). Silvae Gene 19: 54–63

  13. Grigg JL (1975) Determination of phosphate in soil extracts by automatic colorimetric analysis. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 65: 95–112

  14. Johnson DB, Moore WE, Zank LC (1961) The spectrophoto-metric determination of lignin in small wood samples. Tappi 44: 793–8

  15. Leney L (1981) A technique for measuring fibril angle using polarized light. Wood Fiber 13: 13–16

  16. Mark RE, Gillis PP (1973) The relationship between fiber modulus and S2 angle. Tappi 56: 164–167

  17. McMahon TA (1975) The mechanical design of trees. Sci Amer 233: 92–102

  18. McMahon TA, Kronauer RE (1976) Tree structures: deducing the principle of mechanical design. J Theor Biol 59: 443–466

  19. Panshin AJ, DeZeeuw C (1980) Textbook of wood technology, vol. 1, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York

  20. Pederick LA, Hopmans P, Flinn DW, Abbott ID (1984) Variation in genotypic response to suspected copper deficiency in Pinus radiata. Aust For Res 14:75–84

  21. Schniewind AP, Gammon B (1986) Strength and related properties of Bishop Pine II. Properties of juvenile wood from young stems of various provenances. Wood Fiber Sci 18: 361–368

  22. Turvey ND (1984) Copper deficiency in Pinus radiata planted in a podzol in Victoria, Australia. Plant Soil 77:73–86

  23. Whiteman PH, Cameron JN, Appleton R (1990) Growth and form of radiata pine cuttings and seedlings on an ex-pasture site in Gippsland, Victoria. Aust For 53: 99–103

  24. vanZyl JD (1978) Notes on the spectrophotometric of lignin in wood samples. Wood Sci Tech 12: 251–259

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Geoffrey M. Downes.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Downes, G.M., Beckers, E.P.J., Turvey, N.D. et al. Strength and structure of stems from fast grown Pinus radiata . Trees 7, 131–136 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00199612

Download citation

Key words

  • Pinus radiata
  • Stem strength
  • Elasticity
  • Lignin
  • Microfibril angle