Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Reconstitution of chlorophylls and photosynthetic CO2 assimilation upon rehydration of the desiccated poikilochlorophyllous plant Xerophyta scabrida (Pax) Th. Dur. et Schinz

  • 110 Accesses

  • 59 Citations

Abstract

Resynthesis of the photosynthetic apparatus and resumption of CO2 assimilation upon rehydration is reported for the monocotyledonous and poikilochlorophyllous desiccation-tolerant (PDT) plant Xerophyta scabrida (Pax) Th. Dur. et Schinz (Velloziaceae). During desiccation there was a complete breakdown of chlorophylls whereas the total carotenoid content of air-dried leaves was reduced to about 22% of that of functional leaves. The prerequisites for the resynthesis of photosynthetic pigments and functional thylakoids were the reappearance of turgor and maximum leaf water content at 2 and 10 h after rehydration, respectively. The period of increased initial respiration after rewetting leaves (rehydration respiration) lasted up to 30 h and was thus 6 to 10 times longer than in homoiochlorophyllous desiccation-tolerant plants (HDTs) in which chlorophylls are retained during desiccation. Accumulation of chlorophylls a + b and total carotenoids (xanthophylls and βcarotene) started 10 h after rehydration. Normal levels of chlorophyll and carotenoids were obtained 72 h after rehydration. Values for the variable-fluorescence decrease ratio (Rfd690 values), an indicator of photochemical activity, showed that photochemical function started 10 h after rehydration, but normal values of 2.7 were reached only 72 h after rehydration. Net CO2 assimilation started 24 h after rewetting and normal rates were reached after 72 h, at the same time as normal values of stomatal conductance were obtained. The increasing rates of net CO2 assimilation were paralleled by decreasing values of the intercellular CO2 concentration. All photosynthetic parameters investigated showed values normal for functional chloroplasts by 72 h after the onset of rehydration. Fully regreened leaves of the presumed C3 plant X. scabrida exhibited a net CO2 assimilation rate which was in the same range as that of other C3 plants and higher than that of recovered HDT plants. The fundamental difference between air-dried PDT plants, such as X. scabrida, which have to resynthesize the photosynthetic pigment apparatus, and air-dried HDT plants, which only undergo a functional recovery, is discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

c:

β-carotene

ci :

intercellular CO2 concentration

Car x + c:

total carotenoid content x + c

Chl a + b:

total chlorophyll a + b content

gs :

stomatal conductance

HDT:

homoiochlorophyllous desiccation tolerant

LWC:

leaf-water content

PN :

net photosynthesis rate

PDT:

poikilochloro phyllous desiccation tolerant

Rd :

dark respiration

Rfd:

variable fluorescence decrease ratio (Rfd = fd/fs)

x:

xanthophylls

References

  1. Bewley, D.J. (1979) Physiological aspects of desiccation tolerance. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 30, 195–238

  2. Bewley, J.D., Halmer, P., Krochko, J.E., Winner, W.E. (1978) Metabolism of a drought-tolerant and a drought-sensitive moss. Respiration, ATP synthesis and carbohydrate status. In: Dry biological systems, pp. 185–203, Crowe, J.H., Clegg, J.S., eds. Academic Press, New York

  3. Catsky, J. (1974) Water content. In: Methods of studying plant water relations, pp. 121–156, Slavik, B., ed. Acad. Publ. House Czech. Acad. Sci., Springer, Praha Berlin

  4. Dahlgren, R.M.T., Clifford, H.T., Yeo, P.F. (1985) The families of the monocotyledons. Structure, evolution, and taxonomy. Springer, Berlin

  5. Dilks, T.J.K., Proctor, M.C.F. (1976) Effects of intermittent desiccation on bryophytes. J. Bryol. 9, 249–264

  6. Farrar, J.F., Smith, D.C. (1976) Ecological physiology of lichen Hypogymnia physodes. III. The importance of the rewetting phase. New Phytol. 77, 115–125

  7. Gaff, D.F. (1977) Desiccation tolerant vascular plants of Southern Africa. Oecologia (Berl.) 31, 95–109

  8. Gaff, D.F. (1987) Desiccation tolerant plants in South America. Oecologia (Berl.) 74, 133–136

  9. Gaff, D.F. (1989) Responses of desiccation tolerant ‘resurrection’ plants to water stress. In: Structural and functional responses to environmental stresses, pp. 255–268, Kreeb, K.H., Richter, H., Hinckley, T.M., eds. Academic Publishing, The Hague

  10. Gaff, D.F., McGregor, G.R. (1979) The effect of dehydration and rehydration on the nitrogen content of various fractions from resurrection plants. Biol. Plant. 21, 92–99

  11. Gaff, D.F., Zee, S.Y., O'Brien, T.P. (1976) The fine structure of the dehydrated and reviving leaves of Borya nitida Labill. — a desiccation tolerant plant. Aust. J. Bot. 24, 225–236

  12. Gupta, A.S., Berkowitz, G.A. (1988) Chloroplast osmotic adjustment and water stress effects on photosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 88, 200–206

  13. Haitz, M., Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1988) The measurement of Rfd-values as plant vitality indices with the portable field chlorophyll fluorometer and the PAM fluorometer. In: Applications of chlorophyll fluorescence, pp. 249–254, Lichtenthaler, H.K., ed. Kluwer, Dordrecht

  14. Hambler, D.J. (1961) A poikilohydrous, poikilochlorophyllous angiosperm from Africa. Nature 191, 1415–1416

  15. Harten, J.B., Eickmeier, W.G. (1986) Enzyme dynamics of the resurrection plant Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring during rehydration. Plant Physiol. 82, 61–64

  16. Hetherington, S.E., Smillie, R.M. (1982) Humidity-sensitive degreening and regreening of leaves of Borya nitida Labill. as followed by changes in chlorophyll fluorescence. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 9, 587–599

  17. Hetherington, S.E., Hallam, N.D., Smillie, R.M. (1982) Ultrastructural and compositional changes in chloroplast thylakoids of leaves of Borya nitida during humidity-sensitive degreening. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 9, 601–609

  18. Hoffmann, P. (1968) Pigmentgehalt und Gaswechsel von Myrothamnus-Blättern nach Austrocknung und Wiederaufsättigung. Photosynthetica 2, 245–252

  19. Lange, O.L. (1980) Moisture content and CO2 exchange of lichens. I. Influence of temperature and moisture-dependent net photosynthesis and dark respiration in Ramalina maciformis. Oecologia (Berl.) 45, 82–87

  20. Larcher, W. (1980) Physiological plant ecology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York

  21. Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1969) Light-stimulated synthesis of plastid quinones and pigments in etiolated barley seedlings. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 184, 164–172

  22. Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1987) Chlorophylls and carotenoids, the pigments of the photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods Enzymol., 148, 350–382

  23. Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1988) In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool for stress detection in plants. In: Applications of chlorophyll fluorescence, pp. 129–142, Lichtenthaler, H.K., ed. Kluwer, Dordrecht

  24. Lichtenthaler, H.K., Rinderle, U. (1988) The role of chlorophyll fluorescence in the detection of stress conditions in plants. CRC Critical Rev. Analyt. Chem. 19, Suppl.1, S29-S85

  25. Lichtenthaler, H.K., Buschmann, U., Döll, M., Fietz, H.J., Bach, T, Kozel, U., Meier, D., Rahmsdorf, U. (1981) Photosynthetic activity, chloroplast ultrastructure, and leaf characteristics of highlight and low-light plants and of sun and shade leaves. Photos. Res. 2, 115–141

  26. Meenks, D.D.L, Tuba, Z., Csintalan, Z. (1991) Ecophysiological responses of Tortula ruralis upon transplantation around a power plant in West Hungary. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 69, 21–35

  27. Pocs, T. (1976) Vegetation mapping in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Boissiera 24b, 477–498

  28. Proctor, M.C.F. (1990) The physiological basis of bryophyte production. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 104, 61–77

  29. Richter, H. (1978) A diagram for the description of water relations in plant cells and organs. J. Exp. Bot. 29, 1197–1203

  30. Richter, H., Duhme, F., Glatzel, G., Hinckley, T.M., Karlic, H. (1981) Some limitations and applications of the pressure-volume curve technique in ecophysiological research. In: Plants and their atmospheric environment, pp. 263–272, Grace, J., Ford, E.D., Jarvis, P.G. eds. The 21st Symposium of the British Ecological Society, Blackwell Oxford London Edinburgh Boston Melbourne

  31. Ried, A. (1960) Thallusbau und Assimilationshaushalt von Laubund Krustenflechten. Biol. Zentralbl. 79, 129–151

  32. Rogers, R.W. (1971) Distribution of the liehen Chondropsis semiviridis in relation to its heat and drought resistance. New Phytol. 70, 1069–1077

  33. Schonbeck, M.W., Bewley, D. (1981) Responses of the moss Tortula ruralis to desiccation treatments. I. Effects of minimum water content and rates of dehydration and rehydration. Can. J. Bot. 59, 2698–2706

  34. Schwab, K.B., Gaff, D.F. (1986) Sugar and ion contents in leaf tissues of several drought tolerant plants under water stress. J. Plant Physiol. 125, 257–265

  35. Schwab, K.B., Schreiber, U., Heber, U. (1989) Response of photosynthesis and respiration of resurrection plants to desiccation and rehydration. Planta 177, 217–227

  36. Smith, D.C., Molesworth, S. (1973) Lichen physiology. XIII. Effect of rewetting dry lichens. New Phytol. 722, 525–533

  37. Stefanovic, B., Thu, P.T.A., Dasilva, J.V. (1992) Effects of dehydration and rehydration on the polar lipid and fatty-acid composition of Ramonda species. Can. J. Bot. 70, 107–113

  38. Stober, F., Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1992) Changes of the laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence signatures during greening of etiolated leaves of wheat. J. Plant Physiol. 140, 673–680

  39. Tuba, Z. (1987) Light, temperature and desiccation responses of CO2-exchange in desiccation tolerant moss, Tortula ruralis In: Proceedings of the IAB conference of bryoecology, pp. 137–150, Pocs, T., Simon, T., Tuba, Z., Podani, J., eds. Symp. Biol. Hung. Vol. 35., Part A, Akademiai Kiado, Budapest

  40. Tuba, Z., Lichtenthaler, H.K., Csintalan, Z., Pocs, T (1993a) Regreening of desiccated leaves of the poikilochlorophyllous Xerophyta scabrida upon rehydration. J. Plant Physiol. 142, 103–108

  41. Tuba, Z., Lichtenthaler, H.K., Maroti, I., Czintalan, Z. (1993b) Resynthesis of thylakoids and chloroplast ultrastructure in the desiccated leaves of the poikilochlorophyllous plant Xerophyta scabrida upon rehydration. J. Plant Physiol. 142, 742–748

  42. Tyree, M.T., Hammel, H.T. (1972) The measurement of turgor pressure and the water relations of plants by the pressure-bomb technique. J. Exp. Bot. 23, 267–282

  43. von Caemmerer, S., Farquhar, G.D. (1981) Some relationships between the biochemistry of photosynthesis and the gas exchange of leaves. Planta 153, 376–387

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Hartmut K. Lichtenthaler.

Additional information

The senior author thanks the Deutschem Akademischem Auslandsdienst (Bonn, Germany), Soros Foundation (Budapest, Hungary) and European Community (Brussels, Belgium) for providing fellowships for research periods at Karlsruhe. The research was also supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Foundation (OTKA I/848, OTKA I/3.1545 and OTKA I/4.F.5359). We wish to thank Professor T. Pocs (Eger, Hungary — Morogoro, Tanzania) for collecting the plant material and to the linguist Mr. A. Jackson for correcting the English.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Tuba, Z., Lichtenthaler, H.K., Csintalan, Z. et al. Reconstitution of chlorophylls and photosynthetic CO2 assimilation upon rehydration of the desiccated poikilochlorophyllous plant Xerophyta scabrida (Pax) Th. Dur. et Schinz. Planta 192, 414–420 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00198578

Download citation

Key words

  • Carotenoid
  • Chlorophyll fluorescence
  • Photosynthesis
  • Rehydration respiration
  • Variable-fluorescence decrease ratio
  • Xerophyta