Express saccades predominantly occur in experiments employing the gap paradigm where the target onset is separated from the fixation point offset by a blank period. Their relative frequency is distinctly influenced by catch trials (i.e. trials without a saccadic target) mixed into the stream of regular target trials. Generalizing this concept for other stimulus uncertainties (direction, amplitude), we found that the preparation time of a saccade depends on both the type of uncertainty used and the sequence of trial type (e.g., target vs catch, left vs right) in the experiment. This stimulus sequence effect is most prominent for catch trials. A similar but less pronounced effect can still be observed in the case of direction uncertainty but not in that of amplitude uncertainty. A two-state Markov process model is proposed which is based on the dichotomy of express and regular saccades in the gap paradigm. According to this model the actual state of the saccadic system, which determines the type of saccade just in preparation, depends on the “trial history”. The implications for models of saccade programming are discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Becker W, Jürgens, R (1979) An analysis of the saccadic system by means of double step stimuli. Vision Res 19:967–983
Boch R, Fischer B, Ramsperger E (1984) Express saccades of the monkey: reaction time versus intensity, size, duration and eccentricity of their targets. Exp Brain Res 55:223–231
Deubel H (1984) Wechselwirkung von Sensorik und Motorik bei sakkadischen Augenbewegungen. Thesis, Technical University Munich
Deubel H, Wolf W, Hauske G (1986) Adaptive gain control of saccadic eye movements. Hum Neurobiol 5:245–253
Falmagne JC, Cohen SP, Dwivedi A (1975). Two-choice reactions as an ordered memory scanning process. In:Rabbit P, Dornic S (eds) Attention and performance V. Academic Press, New York, pp 296–344
Fischer B (1987) The preparation of visually guided saccades. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 106:1–35
Fischer B, Boch R (1983) Saccadic eye movements after extremely short reaction times in the rhesus monkey. Brain Res 260:21–26
Fischer B, Breitmeyer B (1987) Mechanisms of visual attention revealed by saccadic eye movements. Neurophysiologica 25:73–83
Fischer B, Ramsperger E (1984) Human express saccades:extremely short reaction times of goal directed eye movements. Exp Brain Res 57:191–195
Fischer B, Ramsperger E (1986) Human express saccades:effects of randomization and daily practice. Exp Brain Res 64:569–578
Fischer B, Weber H (1990) Saccadic reaction times of dyslexic and age-matched subjects. Perception 19:805–818
Fischer B, Weber H (1993) Express saccades and visual attention. Behav Brain Sci (in press)
Holst E von, Mittelstaedt H (1950) Das Reafferenzprinzip. Wechselwirkungen zwischen Zentralnervensystem und Peripherie. Naturwissenschaften 37:464–476
Iwaski S (1990) Facilitation of reaction times with gap paradigm:comparison of manual and saccadic responses. Ergonomics 33:833–850
Jüttner M, Wolf W (1992) Occurrence of human express saccade depends on stimulus uncertainty and stimulus sequence. Exp Brain Res 89:678–681
Kowler E, Martins AJ, Pavel M (1984) The effect of expectations on slow oculomotor control. IV. Anticipatory smooth eye movements depend on prior target motions. Vision Res 24:197–210
McLachlan GJ, Basford KE (1988) Mixture models. Dekker, New York
Mayfrank L, Mobashery M, Kimmig H, Fischer B (1986) The role of fixation in the occurrence of express saccades in man. Eur Arch Psychiatr Neurol Sci 235:269–275
Robinson DA (1973) Models of the saccadic eye movement control system. Kybernetik 14:71, 73
Robinson DA (1975) Oculomotor control signals. In:Lennerstrand G, Bach-Y-Rita P (eds) Basic mechanisms of ocular motility and their clinical implications. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 337–374
Saslow MG (1967) Latency for saccadic eye movement. J. Opt Soc Am[A] 57:1024–1029
Vossius G (1960) Das System der Augenbewegung. Z Biol 112:27–57
Young LR, Stark L (1963) Variable feedback experiments testing a sampled data model for eye tracking movements. IEEE Trans Prof Tech Group Hum Factors Electronics 4:38–51
About this article
Cite this article
Jüttner, M., Wolf, W. Stimulus sequence effects on human express saccades described by a Markov model. Biol. Cybern. 70, 247–253 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00197605
- Markov Model
- Trial Type
- Catch Trial
- Target Onset
- Target Trial