Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Gene expression during induction of somatic embryogenesis in carrot cell suspensions

  • 110 Accesses

  • 10 Citations


We report the identification, via their cDNAs, of genes which are temporarily transcribed during the initiation of somatic embryogenesis in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells cultured in an auxin-free medium. Their expression is roughly associated with the first morphogenetic, or globular, stage. A cDNA library (λ gt 10) was established using poly(A)+ -rich RNAs from cells deprived of auxin for 8 d. By differential screening a number of clones corresponding to early-induced embryogenic genes were identified. For several a temporary accumulation of the specific mRNA between 6 and 16 d after induction was observed. With regard to the nucleotide sequence and the respective deduced amino-acid sequence, two glycine-rich proteins and a polypeptide with a proline-rich domain were among the products of genes activated at the onset of somatic embryogenesis.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


b, bp:

bases, basepairs


2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


  1. Backs-Hüsemann, D., Reinert, J. (1970) Embryobildung durch isolierte Einzelzellen aus Gewebekulturen von Daucus carota. Protoplasma 70, 49–60

  2. Benton, W.D., Davis, R.W. (1977) Screening λ gt 10 recombinant clones by hybridization to single plaques in situ. Science 196, 180–182

  3. Bolivar, F., Rodriguez, R.L., Greene, P.J., Betlach, M.C., Heynecker, H.L., Boyer, H.W. (1977) Construction and characterization of new cloning vehicles. II. A multipurpose cloning system. Gene 2, 95–113

  4. Borkird, Ch., Choi, J.H., Jin, Z.-H., Franz, G., Hatzopoulos, P., Chorneau, R., Bonas, U., Pelegri, F., Sung, Z.R. (1988) Developmental regulation of embryonic genes in plants. Proc. Natl. Sci. USA 85, 6399–6403

  5. Cassab, G.I., Varner, J.E. (1988) Cell wall proteins. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 39, 321–353

  6. Condit, C.M., Meagher, P.B. (1986) A gene encoding a novel glycine-rich structural protein of petunia. Nature 323, 178–181

  7. Davis, L.G., Dibner, M.D., Battey, J.F., eds. (1986) Methods in molecular biology. Elsevier, New York

  8. Feinberg, A.P., Vogelstein, B. (1983) A technique for radiolabelling restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity. Anal. Biochem. 132, 6–13

  9. Halperin, W. (1966) Alternative morphogenetic events in cell suspensions. Am. J. Bot. 53, 443–453

  10. Hanahan, D. (1983) Studies on transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids. J. Mol. Biol. 166, 557–580

  11. Holmes, D.S., Quigley, M. (1981) A rapid boiling method for the preparation of bacterial plasmids. Anal. Biochem. 114, 193–197

  12. Kaldenhoff, R., Richter, G. (1990) Light induction of genes preceding chloroplast differentiation in cultured plant cells. Planta 181, 220–228

  13. Keller, B., Sauer, N., Lamb, C.J. (1988) Glycine-rich cell wall proteins in bean: gene structure and association of the protein with the vascular system. EMBO J. 7, 3625–3633

  14. Klein, P., Kanehisa, M., DeLisi, C. (1985) The detection and classification of membrane-spanning proteins. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 815, 468–476

  15. Kyte, J., Doolittle, R.F. (1982) A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein. J. Mol. Biol. 157, 105–132

  16. Little, P.F.R., Jackson, I.J. (1986) Application of plasmids for phage-encoded RNA polymerases. In: Cloning techniques: A practical approach, pp. 1–18, Glover, D., ed. IRL Press, Oxford

  17. Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E.F., Sambrook, G. (1982) Synthesis of cDNA. In: Molecular cloning; A laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., USA

  18. Melton, D.A., Krieg, P.A., Rebagliati, M.R., Maniatis, T., Zinn, K., Green, M.R. (1984) Efficient in vitro synthesis of biologically active RNA and RNA hybridization probes from plasmids containing a bacteriophage SP6 promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 12, 7035–7056

  19. Richter, G., Dudel, A., Einspanier, R., Dannhauer, I., Hüsemann, W. (1987) Blue-light control of mRNA level and transcription during chloroplast differentiation in photomixotrophic and photoautotrophic cell cultures (Chenopodium rubrum L.). Planta 172, 79–87

  20. Smith, G.E., Summers, M.D. (1980) The bidirectional transfer of DNA and RNA to nitrocellulose or diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper. Anal. Biochem. 109, 123–129

  21. Tabor, S., Richardson, C.C. (1987) DNA sequence analysis with a modified bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 4767–4771

  22. de Vries, S.C., Booij, H., Meyerink, P., Huisman, G., Wilde, H.D., Thomas, T.L., van Kammen, A. (1988) Acquisition of embryogenic potential in carrot cell-suspension cultures. Planta 176, 196–204

  23. Wilde, H.D., Nelson, W.S., Booij, H., de Vries S.C., Thomas, T.L. (1988) Gene-expression programs in embryogenic and non-embryogenic carrot cultures. Planta 176, 205–211

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to G. Richter.

Additional information

Sequence data reported here will appear in the EMBL Genbank and DDBJ Nucleotide Sequence Databases under the following accession numbers: X 15436 for clone DC 2.15 (proline-rich protein), X 15706 for clone DC 7.1 (glycine-rich protein, DCGRP) and X 14067 for clone DC 9.1 (glycine-rich protein, DCGRP)

This research was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. We thank Mrs. I. Liebscher for her competent assistance.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Aleith, F., Richter, G. Gene expression during induction of somatic embryogenesis in carrot cell suspensions. Planta 183, 17–24 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00197562

Download citation

Key words

  • Auxin (gene expression in somatic embryogenesis)
  • Daucus (somatic embryogenesis)
  • Embryogenesis (somatic)
  • Gene expression
  • Protein in somatic embryogenesis
  • Transcription (nuclear genes)