Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The endothelium — Astrocyte immune control system of the brain

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Anjeszky A (1900) Über Immunisierung gegen Wut mit normaler Nervensubstanz. Zentralbl Bakteriol [Naturwiss] 27: 5

  2. 2.

    Barker CF, Billingham RE (1971) The lymphatic status of hamster cheek pouch tissue in relation to its properties as a graft and a graft site. J Exp Med 133: 620

  3. 3.

    Ben-Nun A, Wekerle H, Cohen IR (1981) The rapid isolation of clonable antigen-specific T lymphocyte lines capable of mediating autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Eur J Immunol 11: 195

  4. 4.

    Brightman MW, Zis K, Anders J (1983) Morphology of cerebral endothelium and astrocytes on determinants of the neuronal microenvironment. A Neuropathol Suppl 8: 21

  5. 5.

    Carrel S, de Tribolet N, Gross N (1982) Expression of HLA-DR and common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigens on glioma cells. Eur J Immunol 12: 354

  6. 6.

    Day ED (1981) Myelin basic protein. Contemp Top Immunol 8: 36

  7. 7.

    de Tribolet N, Hamou MF, Mach J-P, Carrel S, Schreyer M (1984) Demonstration of HLA-DR antigens in normal human brain. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 47: 417

  8. 8.

    De Waal RMW, Bagman MJJ, Maass CN, Cornelissen LMH, Tax WJM, Koene RAP (1982) Variable expression of Ia antigens on the vascular endothelium of mouse skin allografts. Nature 303: 426

  9. 9.

    Dick StJ, Macchi B, Papazoglou S, Odlfield EH, Kornblith PL, Smith BH, Gately MK (1983) Lymphoid cell — glioma cell interaction enhances cell coat production by human gliomas: Novel suppressor mechanisms. Science 220: 742

  10. 10.

    Dinarello ChA (1984) Interleukin 1. Rev Infect Dis 6: 51

  11. 11.

    Farrar JJ, Benjamin WR, Hifliker ML, Howard M, Farrar WL, Fuller-Farrar J (1981) The biochemistry, biology and role of interleukin-2 in the induction of cytotoxic T cell and antibody-forming B cell responses. Immunol Rev 63: 129

  12. 12.

    Fontana A, 606 PJ (to be published) Lymphokines and the brain. Spinger Semin. Immunopahtol

  13. 13.

    Fontana A, Bosshard R, Dahinden C, Grob PJ, Grieder A (1981) Glia cell response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Effect on nucleotide synthesis, its genetic control and definition of the active principle. J Neuroimmunol 1: 352

  14. 14.

    Fontana A, Kristensen F, Dubs R, Gemsa D, Weber E (1982) Production of prostaglandin E and interleukin-1 like factors by cultured astrocytes and C-6 glioma cells. J Immunol 129: 2419

  15. 15.

    Fontana A, McAdam KPWJ, Kristensen F, Weber E (1983) Biological and biochemical characterization of an interleukin-1 like factor from rat C-6 glioma cells. Eur J Immunol 13: 689

  16. 16.

    Fontana A, Fierz W, Wekerle H (1984) Astrocytes present myelin basic protein to encephalitogenic T cell lines. Nature 307: 276

  17. 17.

    Fontana A, Hengartner H, de Tribolet N, Weber E (1984) Glioblastoma cells release both interleukin-1 and factors inhibiting interleukin-2 mediated effects. J Immunol 132: 1837

  18. 18.

    Fontana A, Weber E, Dayer JM (to be published) Synthesis of interleukin-1/endogenous pyrogen in the brain of endotoxin treated mice: A step in fever induction? J Immunol

  19. 19.

    Gallatin WM, Weissmann IL, Butcher EC (1983) Cell surface molecules involved in organ-specific homing of lymphocytes. Nature 304: 30

  20. 20.

    Gery I, Gershon RK, Waksman BH (1972) Potentiation of the T-lymphocyte response to mitogens. I. The responding cell. J Exp Med 136: 128

  21. 21.

    Gilden D, Cole G, Nathanson N (1972) Immunopathogenesis of acute central nervous system disease produced by lymphocytic choriomeningitis: Adoptive immunization of virus carriers. J Exp Med 135: 874

  22. 22.

    Goldstein GW, Betz AL (1983) Recent advances in understanding brain capillary function. Ann Neurol 14: 389

  23. 23.

    Hart DNJ, Fabre JW (1981) Demonstration and characterization of Ia-positive dendritic cells in the interstitial connective tissues of rat heart and other tissues, but not brain. J Exp Med 153: 347

  24. 24.

    Harvey WF, Acton HW (1923) An examination into the degree of efficacy of anti-rabic treatment. Indian Med Res 10: 1020

  25. 25.

    Hasek M, Chutna J, Sladecek M, Lodin Z (1977) Immunologic tolerance and tumor allografts in the brain. Nature 268: 68

  26. 26.

    Hauser StL, Bhan AK, Gilles FH, Hoban CJ, Reinherz EL, Schlossman StF, Weiner HL (1983) Immunohistochemical staining of human brain with monoclonal antibodies that identify lymphocytes, monocytes, and the Ia antigen. J Neuroimmunol 5: 197

  27. 27.

    Hayry P, von Willebrand E, Anderson LC (1980) Expression of HLA-ABC, and DR locus antigens on human kidney, endothelial, tubular and glomerular cells. Scand J Immunol 11: 305

  28. 28.

    Hertz L (1977) Biochemistry of glial cells. In: Ederoff S, Hertz L (eds) Cell tissue and organ cultures in neurobiology. Academic Press, 39

  29. 29.

    Hirsch MR, Wietzerbin Y, Pierres M, Coridis C (1983) Expression of Ia antigen by cultured astrocytes treated with γ-interferon. Neurosci Lett 41: 204

  30. 30.

    Hirschberg H, Moen T, Throsby E (1979) Specific destruction of human endothelial cell monolayer by anti-DRw antisera. Transplantation 28: 116

  31. 31.

    Janeway Jr ChrA, other authors: Bottomly K, Babich J, Conrad P, Conzan S, Jones B, Kaye J, Katz M, McVay L, Murphy DB, Tite J (1984) Quantitative variation in Ia antigen expression plays a central role in immune regulation. Immunol Today 5: 99

  32. 32.

    Kabat EA, Wolf A, Bezer AE (1946) The rapid production of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in rhesus monkeys by injection of heterologous and homologous brain tissue with adjuvants. J Exp Med 85: 117

  33. 33.

    Kimelberg HK (1983) Primary astrocyte cultures — a key to astrocyte function. Cell Mol Neurobiol 3: 1

  34. 34.

    Kimelberg HK, Bowman C, Biddlecome S, Bourke RS (1979) Cation transport and membrane potential properties of primary astroglial cultures from neonatal rat brains. Brain Res 177: 533

  35. 35.

    Koritschoner R, Schweinburg F (1924) Klinisch experimentelle Beobachtungen über Lähmungen nach Wutschutzimpfung. Zentralbl Immunitätsforsch 42: 217

  36. 36.

    Krueger J, Dinarello ChA, Chedid L (1983) Promotion of slow-wave sleep by a purified interleukin-1 preparation. Fed Proc 42: 356

  37. 37.

    Lance EM (1967) A functional study of intracranial parathyroid allografts in the dog. Transplantation 5: 1471

  38. 38.

    Lipsky PE, Kettman JR (1982) Accessory cells unrelated to mononuclear phagocytes and not of bone marrow origin. Immunol Today 3: 36

  39. 39.

    Lipton HL, Dal Canto MC (1976) Theiler's virus-induced demyelination: Prevention by immunosuppression. Science 192: 62

  40. 40.

    McFarlin D, Waksman B (1982) Altered immune function in demyelinative disease. Immunol Today 3: 321

  41. 41.

    Medawar PB (1948) Immunity to homologous grafted skin: The fate of skin homografts transplanted to the brain, to subcutaneous tissue and to the anterior chamber of the eye. Br J Pathol 29: 58

  42. 42.

    Mizel StB (1982) Interleukin-1 and T cell activation. Immunol Rev 63: 51

  43. 43.

    Mokhtarian F, McFarlin DE, Raine CS (1984) Adoptive transfer of myelin basic protein — sensitized T cells produces chronic relapsing demyelinating disease in mice. Nature 309: 356

  44. 44.

    Moraes JR, Stastny P (1977) A new antigen system expressed in human endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 60: 449

  45. 45.

    Murphy JB, Sturm E (1923) Conditions determining the transplantation of tissues in the brain. J Exp Med 38: 183

  46. 46.

    Natali PG, Quaranta V, Nicotra MR, Appolon JC, Pellegrino MS, Ferrone S (1981) Tissue distribution of Ia-like antigens in different species. Analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Transplant Proc 13: 1026

  47. 47.

    Natali PG, de Martino C, Marcellini M, Quaranta V, Ferrone S (1981) Expression of Ia-like antigens on the vasculare of human kidney. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 20: 11

  48. 48.

    Nixon DF, Ting JPY, Freilinger JA (1982) Ia antigens on non-lymphoid tissues. Their origins and functions. Immunol Today 3: 339

  49. 49.

    Nunez G, Ball EJ, Stastny P (1983) Accessory cell function of human endothelial cells. I. A subpopulation of Ia positive cells is required for antigen presentation. J Immunol 131: 666

  50. 50.

    Oppenheim JJ, Gery I (1982) Interleukin-1 is more than an interleukin. Immunol Today 3: 119

  51. 51.

    Ortiz-Ortiz L, Weigle WO (1976) Cellular events in the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats. J Exp Med 144: 604

  52. 52.

    Palacios R (1982) Mechanism of T cell activation: Role and functional relationship of HLA-DR antigens and interleukins. Immunol Rev 63: 73

  53. 53.

    Paterson PY (1960) Transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis in rats by means of lymph node cells. J Exp Med 111: 119

  54. 54.

    Pober JS, Gimbrone MA Jr (1982) Expression of Ia-like antigens by human vascular endothelial cells is inducible in vitro: Demonstration by monoclonal antibody binding and immunoprecipitation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72: 6641

  55. 55.

    Pober JS, Gimbrone MA Jr, Cotran RS, Reiss CS, Burakoff StJ, Fiers W, Ault KA (1983) Ia expression by vascular endothelium is inducible by activated T cells and by human γ interferon. J Exp Med 157 1339

  56. 56.

    Rivers TM, Sprunt DH, Berry GP (1933) Observations on attempts to produce acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in monkeys. J Exp Med 58: 39

  57. 57.

    Roska AK, Johnson AR, Lipsky PE (1984) Immunological function of endothelial cells: Guinea pig aortic endothelial cells support mitogen-induced T lymphocyte activation, but do not function as antigen-presenting cells. J Immunol 132: 136

  58. 58.

    Santos TQ, Valdimarsson H (1982) T-dependent antigens are more immunogenic in the subarachnoid space than in other sites. J Neuroimmunol 2: 215

  59. 59.

    Saris StC, Bigner SH, Bigner DD (1984) Intracerebral transplantation of a human glioma line in immunosuppressed rats. J Neurosurg 60: 582

  60. 60.

    Savion N, Vlodavsky I, Funks Z (1984) Interaction of T lymphocyte and macrophages with cultures vesicular endothelial cells: Attachment, invasion and subsequent degradation of the subendothelial extracellular matrix. J Cll Physiol 118: 169

  61. 61.

    Shirai Y (1921) Transplantations of rat sarcoma in adult hetergenous animals. Jpn Med World 1: 14

  62. 62.

    Sriram S, Soloman D, Rouse RV, Steinman L (1982) Identification of T cell subsets and B lymphocytes in mouse brain experimental allergic encephalomyelitis lesions. J Immunol 129: 1649

  63. 63.

    Scheinberg LC, Taylor JM (1968) Immunological aspects of brain tumors. Prog Neurol Surg 2: 267

  64. 64.

    Scheinberg LC, Edelmann FL, Levy WA (1964) Is the brain an immunologically privileged site? Studies based on intracerebral tumor homo-transplantation and isotransplantation to sensitized hosts. Arch Neurol 11: 248

  65. 65.

    Scheinberg LC, Edelmann FL, Levy WA (1965) Is the brain an immunologically privileged site? Studies on induced host resistance to transplantable mouse glioma following irradiation of prior implants. Arch Neurol 13: 283

  66. 66.

    Scheinberg LC, Kotsilimbas DG, Karpf R, Meyer N (1966) Is the brain an immunologically privileged site? Studies based on homologous skin grafts to the brain and subcutaneous tissue. Arch Neurol 15: 62

  67. 67.

    Steinmann RM, Witmer MD, Nussenzweig MC, Gutchinov B, Austyn JM (1983) Studies with a monoclonal antibody to mouse dendritic cells. Transplant Proc 15: 299

  68. 68.

    Stone SH (1961) Transfer to allergic encephalomyelitis by lymph node cells in inbred guinea pigs. Science 134: 619

  69. 69.

    Ting JPY, Shigekawa BL, Linthicum S, Weiner LP, Frelinger JA (1981) Expression and synthesis of murine immune response-associated (Ia) antigens by brain cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 3170

  70. 70.

    Traugott U, Reinherz EL, Raine CS (1983) Multiple sclerosis: Distribution of T cell subsets within active chronic lesions. Science 291: 308

  71. 71.

    Unanue ER, Beller DI, Lu ChY, Allen PM (1984) Antigen presentation: Comments on its regulation and mechanism. J Immunol 132: 1

  72. 72.

    Waldor M, Sriram S, Steinman L (1983) Anti I-A antibody suppresses active encephalomyelitis: Treatment model for diseases linked to IR genes. J Exp Med 158: 1367

  73. 73.

    Weiner H (1978) Multiple sclerosis. In: Tyler HR, Dawson DM (eds) Current neurology vol 1. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, p 53

  74. 74.

    Weiner HL, Hauser StL (1982) Neuroimmunology I: Immunoregulation in neurological disease. Ann Neurol 5: 437

  75. 75.

    Weiner HL, Bhan AK, Burks J, Gilles F, Kerr C, Reinherz E, Hauser StL (1984) Immunohistochemical analysis of the cellular infiltrate in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 34 (Suppl. 1): 112

  76. 76.

    Whitaker JN (1984) Antigenic determinants of myelin basic protein and its peptides. In: Behan P, Spreafico F (eds) Neuroimmunology. Raven Press, New York, p 179

  77. 77.

    White FP, Dutton GR, Norenberg MD (1981) Microvessels isolated from rat brain: Localization of astrocyte processes by immunohistochemical techniques. J Neurochem 36: 328

  78. 78.

    Wikstrand CJ, Bigner DD (1980) Immunological aspects of the brain and human gliomas. Am J Pathol 98: 517

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to A. Fontana.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Fontana, A., Fierz, W. The endothelium — Astrocyte immune control system of the brain. Springer Semin Immunopathol 8, 57–70 (1985).

Download citation


  • Internal Medicine
  • Control System
  • Immune Control