Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Full-field bubbly flow velocity measurements by digital image pulsed laser velocimetry


Digital Pulsed Laser Velocimetry (DPLV) is a full-field, two dimensional, noninvasive, quantitative flow visualization technique. The technique described here includes the novel use of direct digitization of two-phase bubbly flow images using a high resolution imaging system. The image data is stored for further analysis by new image processing and analysis software developed for flow experiments.

In the technique, ten consecutive frames of data separated by a time increment of 150 ms, are recorded. Each of these ten frames contains the images of bubbles at that one instant of time. A program smooths the instantaneous image and calculates bubble parameters. Another program matches the bubbles from each of the frames into tracks of bubbles through time. This program uses a statistical technique to determine the best possible path of the bubbles.

The ability of pulsed laser velocimetry to capture simultaneous and quantitative rather than qualitative information along with these image processing techniques gives the experimentalist a powerful tool to perform flow visualization and analysis.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Adrian, R.; Yao, C. 1984: Development of pulsed laser velocimetry (PLV) for measurement of turbulent flow. Int. Symposium on Turbulence, University of Missouri, Rolla, Chem. Engr. Dept., pp. 170–186

  2. Adrian, R. 1986: Multi-point optical measurements of simultaneous vectors in unsteady flow — A Review. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 7, 127–145

  3. DI-3000, 1987: An integrated system of graphics software tools, precision visuals, incorporated, Boulder, Colorado

  4. Dudderar, T.; Simpkins, P. 1982: The development of scattered light speckle metrology. Optical Engineering 21, 396–399

  5. Hassan, Y; Blanchat, T.; Hild, R. 1990: Full-field imaging technique using high-energy pulsed laser velocimetry. Conference on Imaging Algorithms and Techniques, to be published in SPIE/SPSE Proceedings Vol. 1244

  6. Hild, R. 1989: Single phase flow visualization using digital pulsed laser velocimetry. Master's Thesis, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas

  7. Hinze, J. O. 1975: Turbulence. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc

  8. Kobayashi, T.; Saga, T.; Segawa, S. 1987: Some considerations on automated image processing of pathline photographs. Flow Visualization IV. (Ed. Véret, C.). pp. 241–246. Washington: Hemisphere

  9. Kobayashi, T.; Saga, T.; Segawa, S. 1989: Multi-point velocity measurements for unsteady flow field by digital image processing. Flow Visualization Symposium, Japan, 1989

  10. Landreth, C.; Adrian, R. 1988: Measurement and refinement of velocity data using high image density analysis in particle image velocimetry. In: Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics. (Eds. Adrian, R.; Asanuma, T.; Durao, D.; Durst, F.; Whitelaw, J.). pp. 484–497. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer

  11. Lourenco, L.; Krothapalli, A.; Buchlin, J.; Riethmuller, M. 1986: A non-invasive experimental technique for the measurement of unsteady velocity and vorticity fields. AIAA J. 24, 1715–1717

  12. Schlichting, H. 1968: Boundary-layer theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc

  13. Wernekinck, U.; Merzkirch, W. 1987: Speckle photography of spatially extended refractive-index fields. Appl. Opt. 26, 31–32

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hassan, Y., Blanchat, T. Full-field bubbly flow velocity measurements by digital image pulsed laser velocimetry. Experiments in Fluids 11, 293–301 (1991).

Download citation


  • Velocimetry
  • Flow Visualization
  • High Resolution Imaging
  • Flow Experiment
  • Visualization Technique