The pharmacokinetics and haemodynamic effects of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) have been investigated following administration of single doses as a sublingual (SL) spray (2.5 mg), sublingual tablet (5 mg) and peroral tablet (10 mg) in a randomised, placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over trial in 16 healthy volunteers.
After the sublingual spray Cmax was higher (39.0 ng·ml-1) and tmax was shorter (3.9 min) than after the sublingual (22.8 ng·ml-1 and 13.8 min) and peroral (16.9 ng·ml-1 and 25.6 min) tablets. The AUC of ISDN did not differ following any of the three formulations (1031; 879; 997 ng·ml-1·min, for the spray, SL tablet and PO-tablet, respectively). Mononitrate metabolites of ISDN (IS-2-MN and IS-5-MN) and total nitrates in plasma increased in proportion to the administered dose. This indicates that the fraction of the dose absorbed was the same for all the formulations but that the extent of first-pass metabolism increased in the order sublingual spray < sublingual tablet < peroral tablet. Thus, compared to the spray, the relative bioavailability of ISDN was 48% and 28% from the sublingual and peroral tablets, respectively.
The haemodynamic effects were quantified using the a/b ratio of the finger pulse wave and the systolic blood pressure and heart rate under orthostatic conditions. For the a/b ratio of the finger pulse, the maximal effect was higher (emax=130%) and the time to emax (temax) shorter (16.6 min) after the spray than the sublingual tablet (84.4% and 25.5 min) or peroral tablet (90.2 and 31.3 min). The onset of effect was within 3, 5 and 7.5 min after the spray, sublingual and peroral tablets, respectively. A larger change in the orthostatically-induced decrease in systolic blood pressure and increase in heart rate was obtained following peroral than sublingual administration despite the similar plasma concentrations of ISDN. This probably reflects the larger amount of pharmacodynamically active mononitrate metabolites formed after oral dosing. The integrated effect following administration of 2.5 mg ISDN as spray was similar to that of a sublingual tablet of 5 mg.
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Vogt, D., Trenk, D., Bonn, R. et al. Pharmacokinetics and haemodynamic effects of ISDN following different dosage forms and routes of administration. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 46, 319–324 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00194399
- Isosorbide dinitrate
- route of administration
- finger pulse wave
- haemodynamic effects
- plasma nitrates