A new approach to the instantaneous three-dimensional mapping of flow fields is introduced. A single camera system uses defocusing in conjunction with a mask (three pin holes) embedded in the camera lens to decode three-dimensional point sources of light (i.e., illuminated particles) on a single image. The sizes and locations of the particle image patterns on the image plane relate directly to the three-dimensional positions of the individual particles. Using sequential images, particles may be tracked in space and time, yielding whole-field velocity information. Calibration of the system is straightforward, whereas the self-similarity of the particle image patterns can be used in automating the data-extraction process. The described technique was used to obtain particle trajectories in the flow field of a vortex ring impinging on a wall.
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Willert, C.E., Gharib, M. Three-dimensional particle imaging with a single camera. Experiments in Fluids 12, 353–358 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00193880
- Flow Field
- Point Source
- Image Plane
- Sequential Image