Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Long-term measurements of surface ozone in the German Democratic Republic

  • 1109 Accesses

  • 85 Citations


The ozone concentration near the earth's surface has been measured at some stations in the GDR for more than 30 yr using the wet chemical method. Even at rural stations the ozone data show a significant linear increase by about 1–3% yr−1. The ozone increase being stronger in summer than in winter is assumed to be due to photochemical ozone production from increasing anthropogenic emissions of trace gases that are transported over long distances. A weaker ozone increase by only about 0.2% per year was observed in the free troposphere (5.5 km) from balloon-soundings at Lindenberg within the period 1975–1984. If the ozone trends continue, the ozone concentration near the surface and its seasonal amplitude will have doubled around the turn of the century as compared to the mid-fifties.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Aleksandrov, E. L., Karol', I. L., Rakipova, L. R., Sedunov, Ju. S., and Chrgian, A. Ch., 1982, Atmosfernyj ozon: izmenenija global'nogo klimata, Leningrad Gidrometeoizdat, pp. 167.

  2. Angell, J. K. and Korshover, J., 1983, ‘Global variations in total ozone and layer-mean ozone: An update through 1981’, J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 22, 1611–1627.

  3. Attmannspacher, W., 1976, ‘Über Extremwerte des natürlichen und anthropogenen bodennahen Ozons’, Meteorol. Rdsch. 29, 33–38.

  4. Attmannspacher, W., 1982, ‘The behaviour of atmospheric ozone during the last 15 years, based on the results of ozone soundings at Hohenpeissenberg, F.R.G.’, Gesellschaft für Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH, München, BPT-Bericht 5/82, 12–17.

  5. Attmannspacher, W. and Hartmannsgruber, R., 1982, ‘Intercomparison of instruments measuring ozone near the ground at the Hohenpeissenberg Observatory. 1 October 1978–30 April 1979’, Ber. Dt. Wetterd., Nr. 161.

  6. Attmannspacher, W., Hartmannsgruber, R., and Lang, P., 1984, ‘Langzeittendenzen des Ozons der Atmosphäre aufgrund der 1967 begonnenen Ozonmeßreihen am Meteorologischen Observatorium Hohenpeissenberg’, Meteorol. Rdsch. 37, 193–199.

  7. Avol, E. L., Linn, W. S., Vennet, T. G., Shamoo, D. A., and Hackney, J. D., 1984, “Comparative respiratory effects of ozone and ambient oxidant pollution exposure during heavy exercise’, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 34, 804–809.

  8. Bartel, A. W. and Temple, J. W., 1952, ‘Ozone in Los Angeles’, Ind. Eng. Chem. 44, 857–861.

  9. Becker, H., Heindrichs, A., and Schurath, U., 1975, ‘Ein transportables Gerät zur Kalibrierung von Ozonanalysatoren durch Messung der optischen Absorption’, Staub, Reinhaltung der Luft 35, (9), 326–329.

  10. Bojkov, R. D., 1984, ‘Tropospheric ozone, its changes and possible radiative effects’, Preprint, WMO Special Environmental Report, No. 16.

  11. Bojkov, R. D. and Attmannspacher, W., 1986, Private communication.

  12. Bojkov, R. D. and Reinsel, G. C., 1985, ‘Trends in tropospheric ozone concentration’, Atmospheric Ozone, Proc. Quadrenn. Ozone Symposium, Kassandra, 1984, pp. 775–781.

  13. Bowen, I. G., and Regener, V. H., 1951, ‘On the automatic determination of atmospheric ozone’, J. Geophysic Res. 56, 307–324.

  14. Brewer, A. W., and Milford, J. R., 1960, ‘The Oxford-Kew ozone sonde’, Proc. Roy. Soc., Ser. A, 256, 470–495.

  15. Cauer, H., 1935, ‘Entnahmeapparatur für chemisch-klimatologische und technische Luftuntersuchungen’, Z. analyt. Chemie 103, 166–180.

  16. Chung, Y. S., 1977, ‘Ground-level ozone and regional transport of air pollutants’, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1127–1136.

  17. Crutzen, P. J., 1974, ‘Photochemical reactions initiated by and influencing ozone in unpolluted tropospheric air’, Tellus 26, 47–57.

  18. Crutzen, P. J., 1983, ‘Atmospheric interactions-homogeneous gas reactions of C, N, and S containing compounds’, B. Bolin and R. B. Cook (eds.), The Major Biogeochemical Cycles and Their Interactions, pp. 67–114.

  19. Davis, D. R. and Dean, C. E., 1972, ‘Meteorological aspects of atmospheric ozone as a potential threat to the forest of North Florida’, J. Environm. Quality 1, 438–441.

  20. Dianov-Klokov, V. I. and Yurganov, L. N., 1981, ‘A spectroscopic study of global space-time distribution of atmospheric CO.’, Tellus 33, 262–273.

  21. Dvorjašina, E. V. and Dianov-Klokov, V. I., 1986, ‘Rezultaty spektroskopičeskich izmerenij soderžanija metana v atmosfere severnogo polušarija (1974–1984 gg.)’, Izvest. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmosf. i Okeana 22, No. 1, 87–89.

  22. Dvorjašina, E. V., Dianov-Klokov, V. I., and Jurganov, L. N., 1984, ‘O variacijach soderžanija okisi ugleroda v atmosfere v tečenie 1970–1982 gg.‘, Izvest. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmosf. i Okeana 20, 40–47.

  23. Ehmert, A., 1951, ‘Ein einfaches Verfahren zur absoluten Messung des Ozongehalts der Luft’, Meteorologische Rundschau 4, 64–68.

  24. Fabian, P. and Pruchniewicz, P. G., 1977, ‘Meridional distribution of ozone in the troposphere and its seasonal variations’, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2063–2073.

  25. Fehsenfeld, F.-C., Bollinger, M. J., Lin, S. C., Parrish, D. D., McFarland, M., Trainer, M., Murphy, P. C., Albritton, D. L., and Lenschow, D. H., 1983, ‘A study of ozone in the Colorado Mountains’, J. Atmosph. Chemistry 1, 87–105.

  26. Feister, U., 1985a, ‘Tropospheric ozone-its interaction with atmospheric minor constituents and its possible impact on the biosphere within the EMEP region’, (Paper presented at the meeting of the Steering Body to the Co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe (EMEP), Geneva, May 1985, pp. 30).

  27. Feister, U., 1985b, ‘Zum Stand der Erforschung des atmosphärischen Ozons’, Veröff. des MD der DDR 26, pp. 52.

  28. Feister, U., Grasnick, K.-H., Peters, G., 1985a, ‘Performance of the electrochemical ozone sonde OSR’, Pure and Appl. Geophys. 123, 422–440.

  29. Feister, U., Plessing, P., Grasnick, K.-H., 1985b, ‘Vertical ozone soundings over Lindenberg’, (submitted to Geod. u. Geophysikal. Veröff. des NKGG der DDR), R. II.

  30. Feister, U. and Warmbt, W., 1985, ‘Long-term surface ozone increase at Arkona (54.68°N, 13.43°E)’, Atmospheric Ozone, Proc. Quadrenn. Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, 3–7 September 1984, D. Reidel Publ., Holland, pp. 782–787.

  31. Fishman, J., Ramanathan, V., Crutzen, P. J., Lin, S. C., 1979, ‘Tropospheric ozone and climate’, Nature 282, 818–820.

  32. Goklany, I. M. and Hoffnagle, G. F., 1984, ‘Trends in emission of PM, SO x and NO x , and VOC: NO x ratios and their implications for trends in pH near industrialized areas’, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 34, M. 8, 844–846.

  33. Graedel, T. E., Franey, J. P., and Kammlott, G. W., 1984, ‘Ozone-and photon-enhanced atmospheric sulfidation of copper’, Science 224, No. 4649, 599–601.

  34. Green, A. E. S., Buckley, T. J., Rio, D. E., Makarewicz, R., and Eachern, A. M., 1980, ‘Factor of safety method, application to air and noise pollution’, Atmosph. Environm. 14, 327–338.

  35. Guicherit, R. and van Dop, H., 1977, ‘Photochemical production of ozone in Western Europe (1971–1975) and its relation to meteorology’, Atmosph. Environm. 11, 145–155.

  36. Hartmannsgruber, R., Attmannspacher, W., and Claude, H., 1985, ‘Opposite behaviour of the ozone amount in the troposphere and lower stratosphere during the last years, based on the ozone measurements at the Hohenpeissenberg Observatory from 1967–1983’, Atmospheric Ozone. Proc. Quadrenn. Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece 1984, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Holland, pp. 770–774.

  37. Heck, W. W. et al., 1982, ‘Assessment of crop loss from ozone’, J. Air Pollut. Control Association, 32, No. 4, 353–361.

  38. Heck, W. W., Cure, W. W., Rawlings, J. O., Zaragoza, C. J., Heagle, A. S., Heggestad, H. E., Kohut, R. J., Kress, L. W., and Temple, P. J., 1984, ‘Assessing impacts of ozone on agricultural crops’, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 34, 729–817.

  39. Herrmann, G., 1982, ‘Christian Friedrich Schönbein, der Entdecker des Ozons’, Z. Meteorologie 32, 199–204.

  40. Hodgeson, J. A., 1972, ‘Review of analytical methods for atmospheric oxidants measurements’, Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 2, 113–132.

  41. Hov, O., Hesstvedt, E., and Isaksen, I. S. A., 1978, ‘Long-range transport of tropospheric ozone’, Nature 273, 341–344.

  42. Isaksen, I. S. A. and Hov, O., 1985, ‘The role of nitrogen species and carbon monoxide in the formation of ozone in the Arctic troposphere’, Paper presented at the Quadrenn. Ozone Symposium, Kassandra, 1984.

  43. Junge, C. E., 1962, Global O3 budget and exchange between stratosphere and troposphere, Tellus 4, 363–377.

  44. Karol', I. L., Ožigina, N. A., Rozanov, E. V., and Timofeev, Ju. M., 1983a, ‘Vlijanie gazovych primesej v atmosfere na temperatury radiacionnogo ravnovesija s konvekciej’, Tr., Glav. geofiz. Observ. im A. N. Voeikova 481, 82–92.

  45. Karol', I. L., Rozanov, V. V., and Timofeev, Ju. M., 1983b, Gazovye primesi v atmosfere, Gidrometeoizdat. Leningrad, pp. 192.

  46. Khalil, M. A. K. and Rasmussen, R. A., 1984, ‘Carbon monoxide in the earth's atmosphere: increasing trend’, Science 224, No. 4644, 54–56.

  47. Komhyr, W. D., 1969, ‘Electrochemical concentration cells for gas analysis’, Ann. Geophys. 25, 203–210.

  48. Konstantinova-Schlesinger, M. A., 1936, ‘Fljuorescentnyj metod opredelenija soderžanija ozona v vozduche’, Tr. El'brusskoj ekspedicii AN SSSR i VI EM, 1934–1935 gg. Izdat. AN SSSR, 49–60.

  49. Lacis, S. A., Hansen, J. E., and Lee, P., 1981, ‘Greenhouse effects of trace gases 1970–1980’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 1035–1038.

  50. Lauscher, F., 1984, Ozonbeobachtungen in Wien von 1953 bis 1981. Zusammenhänge zwischen Ozon und Wetterlagen, Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik in Wien. Publikation Nr. 284.

  51. Liu, S. C., Kley, D., McFarland, M., Mahlman, J. D., and LevyII, H., 1980, ‘On the origin of tropospheric ozone’, J. Geophys. Res. 85, C12, 7546–7552.

  52. Logan, J. A., Prather, M. J., Wofsy, S. C., and McElroy, M. B., 1981, ‘Tropospheric chemistry: A global perspective’, J. Geophys. Res. 86, C8, 7210–7254.

  53. Mariolopoulos, E. G., Repapis, C. C., Zerefos, C. S., Varotsos, C., Ziomas, I., and Bais, A., 1985, ‘A neglected long-term series of ground-level ozone’, Atmospheric Ozone. Proc. Quadrenn. Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, 3–7 September 1984, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Holland, 788–790.

  54. Mrose, H. and Warmbt, W., 1974, ‘Zwei einfache Registriergeräte zur Bestimmung des bodennahen Ozons auf der Grundlage der amperometrischen Titration und des coulometrischen Meßprinzips nach Novak’, Geod. Geophys. Veröff. NKGG der DDR, R. II 18, 58–66.

  55. Ozone Data for the World, 1983, Catalogue of ozone stations and ozone data for 1980–1983, AES Canada in Co-operation with WMO, Downsview Ontario, No. 18.

  56. Perkins, H. C., 1974, Air Pollution, New York, 1974.

  57. Perov, S. P. and Chrgian, A. Ch., 1980, Sovremennye problemy atmosfernogo ozona, Leningrad Gidrometeoizdat, pp. 287.

  58. Prinz, B., 1984, ‘Woran sterben unsere Wälder?’ Umschau 18, 544–549.

  59. Prinz, B., Krause, G. H.-M., and Jung, K.-D., 1985, Untersuchungen der LIS Essen zur Problematik der Waldschäden. Waldschäden-Theorie und Praxis auf der Suche nach Antworten’, R. Oldenburg Verlag, München, Wien, pp. 143–193.

  60. Proffitt, M. H., 1985, ‘Ozone measurement from a balloon payload using a new fast-response UV-absorption photometer’, Atmosph. Ozone, Proc. Quadr. Ozone Symposium, 3–7 September 1984, Halkidiki, Greece, pp. 470–474.

  61. Proffitt, M. H. and McLaughlin, R. J., 1983, ‘Fast-response dual-beam UV-absorption ozone photometer suitable for use on stratospheric balloons’, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54 (12), 1719–1728.

  62. Ramanathan, V., 1980, ‘Climate effects of anthropogenic trace gases’, in W. Bach, J. Pankrath, and J. Williams (eds.), Interactions of Energy and Climate, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Holland, pp. 269–280.

  63. Regener, V. H., 1960, ‘On a sensitive method for the recording of atmospheric ozone’, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 3975–3977.

  64. Rich, S., 1964, ‘Ozone damage to plants’, Ann. Rev. Phytopath. 2, 253–266.

  65. Rothman, L. S., 1981, ‘AFGL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation: 1980 version’, Appl. Opt. 20, 791–795.

  66. Sartorius, R., 1984, ‘Ursprung, Transport und Umwandlung von Luftvereinigungen. Paper presented at the “Kolloquium Waldsterben-Diagnose und Therapie”,’ FGN Berlin e.V. 2–3 April, 1984.

  67. Schjoldager, I. B. Sivertsen, Hanssen, J. E., 1978, ‘On the occurrence of photochemical oxidants at high latitudes’, Atmosph. Environm. 12, 2461–2467.

  68. Vassy, A., 1965, ‘Atmospheric ozone’, Adv. Geophys. 11, Academic Press, New York, London.

  69. VDI, 1978, Handbuch Reinhaltung der Luft, Messen der Ozonkonzentration. Direktes UV-photometrischen Verfahren (Basisverfahren), VDI 2468, Blatt 6.

  70. Waldsterben und Luftverschmutzung, 1984, ‘Eidgenös.’ Department des Inneren, Bern September 1984, pp. 126.

  71. Warmbt, W., 1964, ‘Luftchemische Untersuchungen des bodennahen Ozons 1952–1961. Methoden und Ergebnisse’, Abh. des MD der DDR, 72, (Band X).

  72. Warmbt, W., 1979, ‘Ergebnisse langjähriger Messungen des bodennahen Ozons in der DDR’, Z. Meteorologie, 29, 24–31.

  73. Warmbt, W., 1981, ‘Langjährige Messungen des bodennahen Ozons der DDR’, Technik und Umweltschutz, 23, Leipzig: Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, pp. 62–77.

  74. Warmbt, W. and Herrmann, G., 1977, ‘Surface ozone measurements utilizing chromium trioxide filters’, Proc. Joint Symposium Atmosph. Ozone, Dresden 1976, Vol. I, 179–188.

  75. Warmbt, W., Mrose, H., and Philipp, G., 1974, ‘Vorläufige Meßergebnisse des bodennahen Ozons unter Verwendung von Chromtrioxydfiltern’, Geod. Geophys. Veröff. NKGG der DDR, R. II, 18, 67–80.

  76. WHO, 1979, Environmental Health Criteria 7. Photochemical Oxidants, World Health Organization, Geneva 1979, pp. 110.

  77. WMO, 1981a, ‘Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project’, Review of the contribution of ozone and other minor gases to atmospheric radiation regime and their possible effect on global climatic change. Third WMO statement on modification of the ozone layer due to human activities and some geophysical consequences. Report No. 10.

  78. WMO, 1981b, ‘Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project’, The stratosphere 1981. Theory and measurement. Report No. 11.

  79. WMO, 1982, ‘Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project’, Report of the meeting of experts on potential climatic effects of ozone and other minor trace gases. Report No. 14.

  80. Zerefos, G. S., Ziomes, J. G., and Bais, A. F., 1985, ‘Variability of the vertical ozone distribution’, Atmospheric Ozone. Proc. Quadrenn. Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece 1984, D. Reidel Publ., Holland, pp..269–273.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Feister, U., Warmbt, W. Long-term measurements of surface ozone in the German Democratic Republic. J Atmos Chem 5, 1–21 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00192500

Download citation

Key words

  • Ozone near the ground
  • ozone trends
  • wet chemical method
  • anthropogenic effects
  • influence on biosphere
  • climate change