Solar Physics

, Volume 113, Issue 1–2, pp 145–164 | Cite as

Propagation and confinement of energetic electrons in solar flares

  • S. R. Kane


The propagation, cofinement and total energy of energetic (>25 keV) electrons in solar flares are examined through a brief review of the following hard X-ray measurements: (1) spatially resolved observations obtained by imaging instruments; (2) stereoscopic observations of partially occulted sources providing radial (vertical) spatial resolution; and (3) directivity of the emission measured through stereoscopic observations and the center-to-limb variation of the occurrence frequency of hard X-ray flares. The characteristics of the energetic electrons are found to be quite distinct in impulsive and gradual hard X-ray flares. In impulsive flares the non-thermal electron spectrum seems to extend down to ∼2 keV indicating that the total energy of non-thermal electrons is much larger than that assumed in the past.


Total Energy Flare Electron Spectrum Occurrence Frequency Solar Flare 


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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. R. Kane
    • 1
  1. 1.Space Sciences Laboratory, University of CaliforniaBerkeley

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