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  1. No Access

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    Investigation of Yeast Mitophagy with Fluorescence Microscopy and Western Blotting

    Selective clearance of superfluous or dysfunctional mitochondria is a fundamental process that depends on the autophagic membrane trafficking pathways found in many cell types. This catabolic event, called mit...

    Sachiyo Nagumo, Koji Okamoto (2017)

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    Exploring MicroRNAs on NIX-Dependent Mitophagy

    The dysregulation of autophagy is implicated in many pathological disorders including infections, aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Autophagy can be precisely controlled both transcriptionally and...

    Wen Li, Hao Chen, Shupeng Li, Guanghong Lin, Du Feng (2017)

  3. No Access

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    Intestinal Crypt Organoid: Isolation of Intestinal Stem Cells, In Vitro Culture, and Optical Observation

    The isolation and culture of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) was first demonstrated in the very recent decade with the identification of ISC marker Lgr5. The growth of ISCs into crypt organoids provides an in vit...

    Yun Chen, Chuan Li, Ya-Hui Tsai, Sheng-Hong Tseng (2017)

  4. No Access

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    Quantum Dot Toolbox in Membrane Neurotransmitter Transporter Research

    Quantum dot-based fluorescence techniques enable multi-scale molecular profiling ranging from real-time single molecule dynamics to expression trends in million-cell populations. In comparison to currently ava...

    Lucas B. Thal, Danielle M. Bailey, Oleg Kovtun, Sandra J. Rosenthal (2017)

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    Monitoring Mitochondrial Changes by Alteration of the PINK1-Parkin Signaling in Drosophila

    Mitochondrial quality control is a key process in tissues with high energy demands, such as the brain and muscles. Recent studies using Drosophila have revealed that the genes responsible for familial forms of ju...

    Tsuyoshi Inoshita, Kahori Shiba-Fukushima, Hongrui Meng, Nobutaka Hattori, Yuzuru Imai (2017)

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    Mitophagy in Yeast: A Screen of Mitophagy-Deficient Mutants

    Mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) is a process that selectively degrades mitochondria via autophagy. Recent studies have shown that mitophagy plays an important role in mitochondrial homeostasis by degrading...

    Kentaro Furukawa, Tomotake Kanki (2017)

  7. No Access

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    Maintenance of Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Sphingosine-1-Phosphate and Platelet-Derived Growth Factor

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have historically been cultivated on feeder layers of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) in a medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS). However, serum contains ...

    Raymond C. B. Wong, Martin F. Pera, Alice Pébay (2017)

  8. No Access

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    Detection of Hypoxia-Induced and Iron Depletion-Induced Mitophagy in Mammalian Cells

    Mitochondrial quality and quantity are not only regulated by mitochondrial fusion and fission but also by mitochondria degradation. Mitophagy, an autophagy specific for damaged or unnecessary mitochondria, is ...

    Shun-ichi Yamashita, Tomotake Kanki (2017)

  9. No Access

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    Assessment of Mitophagy in iPS Cell-Derived Neurons

    Aberrant mitochondrial function is associated with many neurological diseases. Mitophagy is a key mechanism for the elimination of damaged mitochondria and maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis. Induced plu...

    Kei-Ichi Ishikawa, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Hideyuki Okano, Wado Akamatsu (2017)

  10. No Access

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    MitoPho8Δ60 Assay as a Tool to Quantitatively Measure Mitophagy Activity

    Mitophagy, a selective type of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy), specifically mediates the vacuole/lysosome-dependent degradation of damaged or surplus mitochondria. Because this process reg...

    Zhiyuan Yao, Xu Liu, Daniel J. Klionsky (2017)

  11. No Access

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    Flow Cytometer Monitoring of Bnip3- and Bnip3L/Nix-Dependent Mitophagy

    Mitochondria are organelles with numerous vital roles in cellular metabolism. Impaired or damaged mitochondria are degraded in autophagolysosomes in a process known as mitophagy. Given the fundamental role of ...

    Matilda Šprung, Ivan Dikic, Ivana Novak (2017)

  12. No Access

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    Monitoring Mitophagy During Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Mitochondria constitute the main energy-producing centers of eukaryotic cells. In addition, they are involved in several crucial cellular processes, such as lipid metabolism, calcium buffering, and apoptosis. ...

    Nikolaos Charmpilas, Konstantinos Kounakis, Nektarios Tavernarakis (2017)

  13. No Access

    Protocol

    Generation of Synthetic Antibody Fragments to Detergent Solubilized Membrane Proteins

    Structural determination of membrane proteins is extremely challenging due to the physical characteristics of membrane proteins themselves and the lack of adequate tools and technologies to perform the studies...

    Serdar Uysal, Anthony Kossiakoff (2017)

  14. No Access

    Protocol

    Immobilization Techniques of Bacteria for Live Super-resolution Imaging Using Structured Illumination Microscopy

    Advancements in optical microscopy technology have allowed huge progression in the ability to understand protein structure and dynamics in live bacterial cells using fluorescence microscopy. Paramount to high-...

    Amy L. Bottomley, Lynne Turnbull, Cynthia B. Whitchurch in Bacterial Pathogenesis (2017)

  15. No Access

    Protocol

    The Use of Lectin Histochemistry for Detecting Apoptotic Cells in the Seminiferous Epithelium

    Lectin histochemistry is commonly used to characterize the pattern of glycoconjugates in cells and tissues. Recent studies show that alterations in these glycoconjugates are associated with the entry of cells ...

    Vicente Seco-Rovira, Ester Beltrán-Frutos in Histochemistry of Single Molecules (2017)

  16. No Access

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    Detection of Changes in the Medicago sativa Retinoblastoma-Related Protein (MsRBR1) Phosphorylation During Cell Cycle Progression in Synchronized Cell Suspension Culture

    Deepening our knowledge on the regulation of the plant cell division cycle depends on techniques that allow for the enrichment of cell populations in defined cell cycle phases. Synchronization of cell division...

    Ferhan Ayaydin, Edit Kotogány, Edit Ábrahám, Gábor V. Horváth in Cell Cycle Synchronization (2017)

  17. No Access

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    A Protocol for Measuring Mitotic Chromosome Condensation Quantitatively in Fission Yeast Cells

    Even though the formation of compact cylindrical chromosomes early during mitosis or meiosis is a prerequisite for the successful segregation of eukaryotic genomes, little is known about the molecular basis of...

    Christoph Schiklenk, Boryana Petrova, Christian H. Haering in Cohesin and Condensin (2017)

  18. No Access

    Protocol

    SH2 Ligand Prediction–Guidance for In-Silico Screening

    Systematic identification of binding partners for SH2 domains is important for understanding the biological function of the corresponding SH2 domain-containing proteins. Here, we describe two different web-acc...

    Shawn S. C. Li, Lei Li in SH2 Domains (2017)

  19. No Access

    Protocol

    Discovering Functional ERK Substrates Regulating Caenorhabditis elegans Germline Development

    The Rat Sarcoma (RAS) GTPAse-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway regulates multiple biological processes across metazoans. In particular during Caenorhabditis elegans oogenesis, ERK signa...

    Jessica Jie Chen, Swathi Arur Ph.D. in ERK Signaling (2017)

  20. No Access

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    Anti-inflammatory Properties of Antimicrobial Peptides and Peptidomimetics: LPS and LTA Neutralization

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) neutralization constitute potential non-antibiotic treatment strategies for sepsis - a systemic infection-induced inflammatory response. Studies on LPS- and...

    Sarah Line Skovbakke, Henrik Franzyk in Antimicrobial Peptides (2017)

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