Living Reference Work Entry

Handbook of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

pp 1-15

Date: Latest Version

Bioactive Ceramic Porcelain/Glass for Dental Application

  • E. KontonasakiAffiliated withDepartment of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, School of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Email author 
  • , X. ChatzistavrouAffiliated withDepartment of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan Email author 
  • , K. M. ParaskevopoulosAffiliated withDepartment of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Email author 
  • , P. KoidisAffiliated withDepartment of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, School of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Email author 

Abstract

The development of dental materials with the ability to heal and regenerate the natural architecture of lost or damaged dental or periodontal tissues is an area of ongoing research. In this concept, the term bioactivity has started to emerge as an important property for the dental materials. Several bioactive calcium-based or calcium-containing materials, including dental cements, composites, and glass-ceramics that develop a surface layer of an apatite-like phase in the presence of an inorganic phosphate solution, have been proposed in various dental applications. The induction of bioactive properties in conventional dental ceramics used in restorative dentistry could lead to materials able to support tissue attachment, extending their applications beyond the current limitations of restoring only the morphological and esthetics characteristics of the destroyed tooth structures. Among the different fabrication techniques, the application of the low-temperature sol–gel (solution–gelation) process in the fabrication of dental bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics is an advanced well-established approach, as this process allows the tailoring of the structural (specific surface area and porosity) and chemical characteristics, in order to develop optimized bioactive surfaces, with enhanced bioactivity over a wide range of silica concentrations. This chapter reviews some of the key approaches for the induction of bioactivity in commercial bioinert dental composites and mostly highlights the advantages of sol–gel technology in the synthesis of new glass-ceramics and composites for dental restorations which combine bioactive properties and antimicrobial activity with optimum textural characteristics and biological and mechanical properties.