The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system that is comprised of various glands that are located throughout the body. These glands are responsible for synthesizing and producing hormones that communicate regulatory information to cells and organs. The adrenal glands are primarily responsible for the stress response in the human body secondary to physical or emotional stimuli. The two adrenal glands are pyramid-shaped organs located directly anterior to the kidneys and behind the peritoneum. Each adrenal gland consists of two distinct portions: an inner medulla and an outer cortex. Each portion has differing but interrelated structures and hormonal functions.
The adrenal medulla synthesizes and secretes the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. Major effects of catecholamines are increased rate and force of contraction of the heart muscle, constriction of blood vessels, dilation of bronc ...
Reference Work Entry Metrics
Date: 2016 (Latest)History
- 2016 (Latest)
- Adrenal Glands
- Reference Work Title
- Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine
- pp 1-3
- Online ISBN
- Springer New York
- Copyright Holder
- Springer Science+Business Media New York
- Industry Sectors
- eBook Packages
- Editor Affiliations
- 1. University of Miami School of Medicine
- 2. Campbell University School of Pharmacy
- Author Affiliations
- 3. School of Nursing, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI, 53792-2455, USA
- 4. Alina Health System, St. Paul, MN, USA
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