Electrical Impedance Myography and Its Applications in Neuromuscular Disorders
Electrical impedance myography (EIM) refers to the specific application of electrical bioimpedance techniques for the assessment of neuromuscular disorders. In EIM, a weak, high-frequency electrical current is applied to a muscle or muscle group of interest and the resulting voltages measured. Among its advantages, the technique can be used noninvasively across a variety of disorders and requires limited subject cooperation and evaluator training to obtain accurate and repeatable data. Studies in both animals and human subjects support its potential utility as a primary diagnostic tool, as well as a biomarker for clinical trial or individual patient use. This review begins by providing an overview of the current state and technological advances in electrical impedance myography and its specific application to the study of muscle. We then provide a summary of the clinical and preclinical applications of EIM for neuromuscular conditions, and conclude with an evaluation of ongoing research efforts and future developments.