Machine Learning

, Volume 94, Issue 2, pp 133–149

From machine learning to machine reasoning

An essay
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10994-013-5335-x

Cite this article as:
Bottou, L. Mach Learn (2014) 94: 133. doi:10.1007/s10994-013-5335-x

Abstract

A plausible definition of “reasoning” could be “algebraically manipulating previously acquired knowledge in order to answer a new question”. This definition covers first-order logical inference or probabilistic inference. It also includes much simpler manipulations commonly used to build large learning systems. For instance, we can build an optical character recognition system by first training a character segmenter, an isolated character recognizer, and a language model, using appropriate labelled training sets. Adequately concatenating these modules and fine tuning the resulting system can be viewed as an algebraic operation in a space of models. The resulting model answers a new question, that is, converting the image of a text page into a computer readable text.

This observation suggests a conceptual continuity between algebraically rich inference systems, such as logical or probabilistic inference, and simple manipulations, such as the mere concatenation of trainable learning systems. Therefore, instead of trying to bridge the gap between machine learning systems and sophisticated “all-purpose” inference mechanisms, we can instead algebraically enrich the set of manipulations applicable to training systems, and build reasoning capabilities from the ground up.

Keywords

Machine learning Reasoning Recursive networks 

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Microsoft ResearchRedmondUSA

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